Journal of Biomechanical Science and Engineering
Online ISSN : 1880-9863
ISSN-L : 1880-9863
Volume 2, Issue 2
Special Issue on Cardiovascular Flow
Displaying 1-5 of 5 articles from this issue
Special Issue on Cardiovascular Flow
Papers (Secial Issue)
  • Masanori NAKAMURA, Shigeo WADA, Suguru YOKOSAWA, Haruo ISODA, Hiroyasu ...
    2007 Volume 2 Issue 2 Pages 46-57
    Published: 2007
    Released on J-STAGE: May 16, 2007
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    A recent development in phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (cine PC-MRI) allows the detailed measurement of the blood flow in humans. The objectives of this study are twofold: to discuss the utility of clinical two-dimensional (2D) cine PC-MRI as a practical tool for analyzing hemodynamics in the aorta and left ventricle; 2) to provide flow information at those places as references for computational fluid dynamics studies. Using 2D cine PC-MRI, we mapped velocity profiles at various cross sections of the aorta and left ventricle. The results illustrated the main flow events in the left ventricle during the cardiac cycle, such as ventricular ejection and suction, while the secondary flows were less clear. The velocity profile at the entrance of the ascending aorta appeared to be slightly skewed posteriorly in early systole, but the flow in the central zone of the section was rapid. The estimated stroke volume, peak Reynolds numbers, and Womersley numbers were within the normal physiological range. A sequence of secondary flow images from the plane of the aortic valve to the descending aorta revealed the evolution of a helical flow within the aorta. Flows entering the aortic branches were captured well. Those results demonstrate that clinical 2D cine PC-MRI is a practical adjunct for analyzing blood flow in vivo and would be useful as references to check validity of flow dynamics obtained by computer simulations.
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  • Tomohiro FUKUI, Kim H. PARKER, Yohsuke IMAI, Ken-ichi TSUBOTA, Takuji ...
    2007 Volume 2 Issue 2 Pages 58-68
    Published: 2007
    Released on J-STAGE: May 16, 2007
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    The distribution of wall shear stress (WSS) in arteries is affected by both blood and wall motion. Most studies have ignored wall motion by assuming that the artery wall is rigid. To investigate the influence of wall motion we have solved the coupled fluid-solid problem in a straight homogeneous tube. The inlet boundary condition of the tube was given as a pulse of velocity imposed at the inlet of the tube upon a steady flow of Reynolds number 1000. A commercial code (Radioss, Altair Engineering) was used to solve the fluid-solid interactions. Two kinds of waves are generated on the wall by the pulse imposed in the inlet flow; a wave of longitudinal motion of the wall (the longitudinal wave) and a wave of radial motion of the wall (the elastic wave). The ends of the vessel are assumed to be fixed which results in the reflection of both waves. The longitudinal wall motion reduces the relative speed of the blood, reducing WSS by up to 0.5 Pa. The largest effect of wall motion occurs when the longitudinal and elastic waves coincide, where the peak WSS is reduced by 1.0 Pa, which is a significant fraction of the observed WSS. Thus we can say that the effect of wall motion is important in considering physiological response of arterial wall to the blood flow.
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  • Mizuho MATSUBARA, Masao WATANABE, Satoshi WATANABE, Kozo KONISHI, Shoh ...
    2007 Volume 2 Issue 2 Pages 69-80
    Published: 2007
    Released on J-STAGE: May 16, 2007
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) is a symptomatic complete or partial occlusion of the hepatic vein and/or the inferior vena cava. The cause of BCS is not well known yet, however; abnormal vessel wall shear stress caused by blood flow is thought to increase the likelihood of developing BCS. We investigate the blood flow field in the vicinity of the junction of the inferior vena cava and hepatic veins by using numerical simulation based on medical imaging. However, there exist inaccuracies in computational vessel models. The sensitivities of flow characteristics to vessel shape have not been fully investigated. In this study, the characteristics of the blood flow in the vicinity of the junction of the hepatic vein and the inferior vena cava are discussed based on the numerical results obtained by several reconstructed vessel models which are slightly different in shapes and surface smoothness. It is also demonstrated that relatively small differences in the shapes and surface smoothness of the reconstructed vessel model cause noticeable effects on the flow characteristics in the vicinity of the junction of the inferior vena cava and large hepatic veins.
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  • Masao WATANABE, Mizuho MATSUBARA, Toshiyuki SANADA, Hiroaki KURODA, Ma ...
    2007 Volume 2 Issue 2 Pages 81-92
    Published: 2007
    Released on J-STAGE: May 16, 2007
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Nailfold capillaroscopy has been shown to reflect microvascular disturbances mainly in connective tissue diseases, and the development of video capillaroscopy made it possible to determine capillary red blood cell velocity by measuring the displacement of plasma gaps between red cells. We improved both temporal and spatial resolutions of video capillaroscopy by developing the high speed digital video capillaroscopy, integrating high speed digital video camera, deep-focus zoom lens, appropriate light source and light collecting adaptor. The first objective of this study is to present the novel method for quantitative capillary shape analysis by using the level-set method. The capillary radius distribution along the capillary center line is obtained and described by the level-set function. Based on this mathematical description of capillary shape, more rigorous definition of the capillary red blood cell velocity than the conventional method is discussed. The second objective of this study is to propose the innovative measurement method of red blood cell velocity in nailfold capillary, and then the possibility of tracking the individual red blood cell movement, not only in the axial direction but also lateral direction, in human nailfold capillary is discussed
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