The ideal water-soluble dietary fiber for the fiber-enrichment of foods must be very low in viscosity, tasteless, odorless, and should produce clear solutions in beverages. Partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG) produced from guar gum by enzymatic process has the same chemical structure with intact guar gum but less than one-tenth the original molecular length of guar gum, which make available to be used as film former, foam stabilizer and swelling agent. The viscosity of PHGG is about 10 mPa·s in 5% aqueous solution, whereas 1% solution of guar gum shows range from 2,000 to 3,000 mPa·s. In addition, PHGG is greatly stable against low pH, heat, acid and digestive enzyme. For these reasons, PHGG seems to be one of the most beneficial dietary fiber materials. It also showed that interesting physiological functions still fully exert the nutritional function of a dietary fiber. PHGG has, therefore, been used primarily for a nutritional purpose and became fully integrated food material without altering the rheology, taste, texture and color of final products. PHGG named as Benefiber® in USA has self-affirmation on GRAS status of standard grade PHGG. PHGG named as Sunfiber® is now being used in various beverages, food products and medicinal foods as a safe, natural and functional dietary fiber in all over the world.
Oral mucosa is a critical protective interface between external and internal environments. Therefore, it must serve as a barrier to a huge number of microbial species present in the environment. Saliva is an important factor that provides for the environment in the oral cavity, and it is indispensable to the host defense reaction in this manner. Oral neutrophils are also important contributors to maintaining the balance between health and disease in this complex environment. These produce reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide, and several antimicrobial peptides, and enzymes. Neutrophils and saliva all contribute to the maintaining the health of the oral cavity in overlapping but independent ways. In addition to production by neutrophils and macrophage, some bacteria can also generate superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and nitric oxide. Dietary intake of nitrate-enriched vegetables might play important roles in the protection of the oral and stomach against hazardous pathogens via the gastro-intestinal-salivary cycle of nitric oxide (NO) and related metabolites. This review will focus on defense system of the human oral cavity and metabolism of reactive oxygen and NO.
Alcohol abuse is known to cause an array of ethanol induced abnormalities in men but very few reports are available on the effect of alcohol in women. None of them discuss the effect of ethanol consumption on erythrocyte membrane. In the present study, erythrocytes in women who consume alcohol showed significant decrease in their ability to resist haemolysis with HPLC studies. Erythrocyte membrane indicates decreased phospholipid (p<0.05) levels, which increased the cholesterol/phospholipid ratio significantly (p<0.01) in women who consume alcohol. This can decrease the fluidity of membrane, which appears to be related to the effect of ethanol on erythrocyte membrane. Also the protection against exogenous and endogenous peroxides in the erythrocytes of alcoholic women is considerably affected due to decreased (p<0.05) activity of catalase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, protein–SH group and glutathione (GSH). Enhanced free radical generation induced oxidation of oxyHb to metHb in alcoholics. Increased methemoglobin leads to significant reduction in membrane GSH, which may cause protein thiol oxidation. Thus peroxidative damage to membrane lipids and oxidation of membrane protein thiols potentially harmful to membrane fluidity and flexibility is responsible for decreased resistance to haemolysis as demonstrated in women who consume alcohol.
Cephalotaxus sinensis (C. sinensis) large size, evergreen tree common in China and utilized for numerous effective pharmacological applications in Chinese traditional medicine. The hepato-renal effects of C. sinensis were evaluated in vivo using Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats as an tentative model. Animals were orally treated with 80% EtOH extract (aq.EE), H2O extract (WtE) and ethylacetate (EaF)/butanol fractions (BtF) of C. sinensis (200 mg/kg, b.w.) for 28 days whereas control received vehicle merely. The degree of fortification was measured by using biochemical parameters like serum transaminases (ALT and AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), creatinine, urea and urine sugar. Meanwhile, the histopathological studies were conducted out to support the above parameters. Administration of C. sinensis aq.EE/BtF (p<0.05) and EaF (p<0.01) patently prevented STZ-induced elevation levels of serum ALT, AST, ALP, creatinine, urea, urine sugar and increase body weight respectively, which were comparable with the standard drug tolbutamide, while WtE did not show any significant effect (p>0.05). Phytochemical studies revealed the presence of saponins, terpenes, sterols and flavonoids in C. sinensis which could be responsible for the possible hepato-renal protective action. The results sustain the fact that the extract/fractions of C. sinensis have an immense potential to be developed further into a phytomedicine.
The effects of pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) and coenzyme Q10 (Co Q10), either alone or together, on the learning ability and memory function of rats were investigated. Rats fed a PQQ-supplemented diet showed better learning ability than rats fed a CoQ10-supplemented diet at the early stage of the Morris water maze test. The combination of both compounds resulted in no significant improvement in the learning ability compared with the supplementation of PQQ alone. At the late stage of the test, rats fed PQQ-, CoQ10- and PQQ + CoQ10-supplemented diets showed similar improved learning abilities. When all the groups were subjected to hyperoxia as oxidative stress for 48 h, rats fed the PQQ- and CoQ10 supplemented diets showed better memory function than the control rats. The concurrent diet markedly improved the memory deficit of the rats caused by oxidative stress. Although the vitamin E-deficient rats fed PQQ or CoQ10 improved their learning function even when subjected to hyperoxia, their memory function was maintained by PQQ rather than by CoQ10 after the stress. These results suggest that PQQ is potentially effective for preventing neurodegeneration caused by oxidative stress, and that its effect is independent of either antioxidant’s interaction with vitamin E.
The membrane permeability transition (MPT) of mitochondria plays an important role in the mechanism of apoptotic cell death in various cells. Classic type MPT is induced by Ca2+ in the presence of inorganic phosphate and respiratory substrate, and is characterized by various events including generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), membrane depolarization, swelling, release of Ca2+ and high sensitivity to cyclosporine A. However, the sequence of these events and the effect of antioxidants on their events remain obscure. Flow cytometry is a convenient method to investigate the order of events among various functions occurring in MPT using a limited amount of mitochondria (200 μl of 0.02 mg protein/ml) without contamination by other organelles. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that Ca2+ sequentially induced ROS generation, depolarization, swelling and Ca2+ release in mitochondria by a cyclosporine A-inhibitable mechanism. These results were supported by the finding that Ca2+-induced MPT was inhibited by antioxidants, such as glutathione and N-acetylcysteine. It was also revealed that various inhibitors of Ca2+-induced phospholipase A2 suppressed all of the events associated with Ca2+-induced MPT. These results suggested that ROS generation and phospholipase A2 activation by Ca2+ underlie the mechanism of the initiation of MPT.
The present study was examined the therapeutic effect of medium-chain triacylglycerol (MCT) in protein-energy malnutrition (PEM). Wistar rats were fed low protein diet containing 70 g/kg of long-chain triacylglycerol (LCT) or MCT for 31 days. The serum albumin concentration in rats fed MCT diet (2.88 ± 0.04 g/dl) were significantly higher compared with those fed LCT diet (2.72 ± 0.04 g/dl) at day 31. Nitrogen balance was higher in rats fed MCT diet (54.1 ± 2.3 mg/day) compared with those fed LCT diet (45.4 ± 2.4 mg/day) during d 10–12. These results suggest that MCT effectively elevates serum albumin concentration and improves nitrogen balance in malnourished rats.
Previously, we identified four metabolites of (−)-epicatechin in blood and urine: (−)-epicatechin-3'-O-glucuronide (E3'G), 4'-O-methyl-(−)-epicatechin-3'-O-glucuronide (4'ME3'G), (−)-epicatechin-7-O-glucuronide (E7G), and 3'-O-methyl-(−)-epicatechin-7-O-glucuronide (3'ME7G) (Natsume et al. Free Radical Biol. Med. 34, 840-849, 2003). The aim of the current study was to compare the antioxidative activities of these metabolites with that of their parent compound. After oral administration of (−)-epicatechin, E3'G and 4'ME3'G were isolated from human urine, and E7G and 3'ME7G isolated from rat urine. We found that these compounds inhibited peroxynitrite-mediated tyrosine nitration, in the following order of potency: E3'G > (−)-epicatechin > E7G = 3'ME7G. = 4'ME3'G. These results demonstrate that the metabolites of (−)-epicatechin retain antioxidative activity on peroxynitrite-induced oxidative damages to some extent.
Series studies suggest that enteropathogenic microorganisms play a substantial role in the clinical initiation and relapses of ulcerative colitis (UC). Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) is an important constituent of the innate immune system, and deficiency of MBL has been reported to increase the overall susceptibility of an individual to infectious disease. This study was aimed to investigate the associations between polymorphisms of the MBL gene and UC. Recruited in this study were 108 Japanese patients with UC and 144 healthy control subjects. Polymorphism at codon 54 of exon 1 of the MBL gene was investigated by polymerase chain reaction based restriction fragment length polymorphism. In general, no significant difference in MBL polymorphism was found between UC patients and health controls. However, the frequency of A carriers was significantly higher in the relapsing cases than controls (Odds ration = 2.19, 95%CI, 1.10–4.34; p = 0.023), and similar tendency was also found in A/A genotype. In conclusion, the polymorphism at codon 54 of exon 1 of the MBL gene associated with the susceptibility to the relapsing phenotype of ulcerative colitis. It suggests that codon 54 A variants of MBL gene may have an increased risk for the flare-ups of UC.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a diabetic meal delivery system on glycemic control over a 12 month period in patients with type 2 diabetes. A total of 77 patients with type 2 diabetes were assigned randomly into three dietary intervention groups: group M, diabetic meal delivery; group D, individual dietary counseling; and group C, conventional dietary education. In group M, HbA1c levels decreased significantly from 8.2 ± 1.2% to 7.4 ± 0.8% after 12 months (p<0.05), while in group D, HbA1c levels decreased significantly throughout the entire 12 month period, from 8.5 ± 1.7% at baseline to 7.4 ± 1.1% at the endpoint. Similarly, fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels decreased significantly between 1 and 12 months in group M (p<0.05), and decreased significantly during the entire 12 month period in group D (p<0.01). There were no significant changes in either HbA1c or FBG levels in group C. This study provides evidence that intervention with delivery of diabetic meals to patients with type 2 diabetes can be equally effective for achieving glycemic control as individual dietary counselling by a dietitian. Diabetic meal delivery can therefore be used successfully to provide diabetes education to outpatients.
15-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) and an anti-diabetic thiazolidinedione, troglitazone (TRO) are peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ ligands, which regulate immuno-inflammatory reactions as well as adipocyte differentiation. We previously reported that 15d-PGJ2 can suppress interleukin (IL)-1β-induced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis in synoviocytes of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). IL-1 also stimulates PGE2 synthesis in osteoblasts by regulation of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and regulates osteoclastic bone resorption in various diseases such as RA and osteoporosis. In this study, we investigated the feedback mechanism of the arachidonate cascade in mouse osteoblastic cells, MC3T3-E1 cells, which differentiate into mature osteoblasts. Treatment with 15d-PGJ2 led to a significant increase in IL-1α-induced COX-2 expression and PGE2 production in a dose dependent manner. The effect of 15d-PGJ2 was stronger than that of TRO. However, it did not affect the expression of COX-1. In addition, cell viability of MC3T3-E1 cells was not changed in the condition we established. This means that 15d-PGJ2 exerts a positive feedback regulation of the arachidonate cascade of PGE2 in osteoblastic cells. These results may provide important information about the pathogenesis and treatment of bone resorption in a variety of diseases such as RA and osteoporosis.