Medical gases are pharmaceutical gaseous molecules which offer solutions to medical needs and include traditional gases, such as oxygen and nitrous oxide, as well as gases with recently discovered roles as biological messenger molecules, such as carbon monoxide, nitric oxide and hydrogen sulphide. Medical gas therapy is a relatively unexplored field of medicine; however, a recent increasing in the number of publications on medical gas therapies clearly indicate that there are significant opportunities for use of gases as therapeutic tools for a variety of disease conditions. In this article, we review the recent advances in research on medical gases with antioxidant properties and discuss their clinical applications and therapeutic properties.
In comparison to the general population, individuals with diabetes suffer a 3- to 4-fold increased risk for developing complications of atherosclerosis and vascular insufficiency. This fact should be taken into account to develop a suitable determinant for the early detection of these complications and subsequently reduce the adverse effect of type 2 diabetes. In vitro experiments have shown that the products of glucose auto-oxidation and Amadori adducts are both potential sources of Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML). Excessive formation of CML on low density lipoprotein (LDL) has been proposed to be an important mechanism for the dyslipidemia and accelerated atherogenesis observed in patients with type 2 diabetes. It has been postulated that the uptake of CML-LDL by LDL receptors is impaired, thereby decreasing its clearance from the blood circulation. Alternatively, the uptake of these modified LDL particles by scavenger receptors on macrophages and vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and by AGE receptors on endothelial cells, SMCs, and monocytes is highly enhanced and this, in turn, is centrally positioned to contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular complications especially coronary artery disease. The present review summarizes the up-to-date information on effects and mechanism of type 2 diabetes-associated coronary atherosclerosis induced by CML-LDL modification.
Hemorrhagic shock causes oxidative stress that leads to tissue injuries in various organs including the lung, liver, kidney and intestine. Excess amounts of free heme released from destabilized hemoproteins under oxidative conditions might constitute a major threat because it can catalyze the formation of reactive oxygen species. Cells counteract this by rapidly inducing the rate-limiting enzyme in heme breakdown, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), which is a low-molecular-weight stress protein. The enzymatic HO-1 reaction removes heme. As such, endogenous HO-1 induction by hemorrhagic shock protects tissues from further degeneration by oxidant stimuli. In addition, prior pharmacological induction of HO-1 ameliorates oxidative tissue injuries induced by hemorrhagic shock. In contrast, the deletion of HO-1 expression, or the chemical inhibition of increased HO activity ablated the beneficial effect of HO-1 induction, and exacerbates tissue damage. Thus, HO-1 constitutes an essential cytoprotective component in hemorrhagic shock-induced oxidative tissue injures. This article reviews recent advances in understanding of the essential role of HO-1 in experimental models of hemorrhagic shock-induced oxidative tissue injuries with emphasis on the role of its induction in tissue defense.
Our objective was to examine whether habitual green tea consumption is associated with blood glucose levels and other biomarkers of glucose metabolism. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 35 male volunteers, 23–63 years old and residing in Shizuoka Prefecture in Japan. Biochemical data were measured and we conducted a questionnaire survey on health, lifestyle, and nutrition, as well as frequency of consumption and concentrations (1%, 2%, and 3%) of green tea. Men who consumed a 3% concentration of green tea showed lower mean values of fasting blood glucose and fructosamine than those who consumed a 1% concentration. Fasting blood glucose levels were found to be significantly associated with green tea concentration (β = −0.14, p = 0.03). However, green tea consumption frequency showed no significant differences in mean levels of blood glucose, fructosamine and hemoglobin A1c. In conclusion, our findings suggest that the consumption of green tea at a high concentration has the potential to reduce blood glucose levels.
In the present study, we tried to establish an efficient assay for total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in human plasma using a 96-well microplate. TAC was assessed using lag time by antioxidants against the myoglobin-induced oxidation of 2,2'-azino-di(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) with hydrogen peroxide, and expressed as Trolox equivalent. The linearity of the calibration curve with Trolox was maintained with the Trolox concentration range from 2.5 μM to 25 μM (R2 = 0.997). The assay was applied to the measurement of TAC in healthy human plasma. Coefficient of variation in intraday assay was 2.4%. Difference was not observed in interday assay. Plasma TAC of men ((569 ± 41) μM Trolox equivalent; n = 6) was higher than that of women ((430 ± 28) μM Trolox equivalent; n = 4). After the vegetable juice was drunk for 1 week, the increase in plasma TAC was observed in almost all the volunteers. In summary, we developed the efficient assay for plasma TAC using a 96-well microplate.
Bay leaves (Laurus nobilis) have been shown to improve insulin function in vitro but the effects on people have not been determined. The objective of this study was to determine if bay leaves may be important in the prevention and/or alleviation of type 2 diabetes. Forty people with type 2 diabetes were divided into 4 groups and given capsules containing 1, 2 or 3 g of ground bay leaves per day for 30 days or a placebo followed by a 10 day washout period. All three levels of bay leaves reduced serum glucose with significant decreases ranging from 21 to 26% after 30 d. Total cholesterol decreased, 20 to 24%, after 30 days with larger decreases in low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol of 32 to 40%. High density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol increased 29 and 20% in the groups receiving 1 and 2 g of bay leaves, respectively. Triglycerides also decreased 34 and 25% in groups consuming 1 and 2 g of bay leaves, respectively, after 30 d. There were no significant changes in the placebo group. In summary, this study demonstrates that consumption of bay leaves, 1 to 3 g/d for 30 days, decreases risk factors for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases and suggests that bay leaves may be beneficial for people with type 2 diabetes.
The hydrogen-bonded guanine tetrad, or G-quartet has been implicated in a variety of biological roles, including the function of chromosome telomeres. Here effect of the hydroxylation of guanosine at the 8 position on the G-quartet formation was examined. Electrospray inonization mass (ESI-MS) spectra of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) and 2'-deoxyguanosine (dG) were measured in order to know whether or not 8-oxodG forms a tetrameric structure as 2'-deoxyguanosine forms in teromeres. The ESI-MS spectra of dG shows prominent peaks at m/z 290, m/z 557, and m/z 1092, corresponding to [dG + Na]+, [dG2 + Na]+, and [dG4 + Na]+ in the presence of 0.1 mM NaCl. On the other hand, the ESI-MS spectra of 8-oxodG in the presence of 0.1 mM NaCl shows prominent peaks at m/z 306 and m/z 589, corresponding to [8-oxodG + Na]+ and [8-oxodG2 + Na]+. The results showed that 8-oxodG forms a relatively unstable tetrameric structure compared with dG.
Ubiquinol-10 (QH2), the reduced form of Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) serves as a potent antioxidant of lipid membranes. Because many antioxidants reveal potent anti-inflammatory effects, the influence of QH2 on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines were determined in the human monocytic cell line THP-1. Stimulation of cells with LPS resulted in a distinct release of Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), Macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha (MIP-1α), Regulated upon activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) and Monocyte chemotattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). The LPS-induced responses were significantly decreased by pre-incubation of cells with QH2 to 60.27 ± 9.3% (p = 0.0009), 48.13 ± 6.93% (p = 0.0007) and 74.36 ± 7.25% (p = 0.008) for TNF-α, MIP-1α and RANTES, respectively. In conclusion, our results indicate anti-inflammatory effects of the reduced form of CoQ10 on various proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in vitro.
The quantification of urinary oxidized tyrosines, dityrosine (DiY), nitrotyrosine (NY), bromotyrosine (BrY), and dibromotyrosine (DiBrY), was accomplished by quadruple liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). The sample was partially purified by solid phase extraction, and was then applied to the LC/MS/MS using multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) methods. The analysis for the DiY quantification was done first. The residual samples were further butylated with n-butanol/HCl, and the other modified tyrosines were then quantified with isotopic dilution methods. MRM peaks of the modified tyrosines (DiY, NY, BrY, and DiBrY) from human urine were measured and the elution times coincided with the authentic and isotopic standards. The amounts of modified tyrosines in healthy human urine (n = 23) were 8.8 ± 0.6 (DiY), 1.4 ± 0.4 (NY), 3.8 ± 0.3 (BrY), and 0.7 ± 0.1 (DiBrY) μmol/mol of creatinine, respectively. A comparison of the modified tyrosines with urinary 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine, pentosidine, and Nε-(hexanoyl)lysine was also performed. Almost all products, except for NY, showed good correlations with each other. The amounts of the modified tyrosines (NY, BrY, and DiBrY) in the diabetic urine were higher than those in the urine from healthy people.
Curcumin [1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione] induces heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression via activation of the nuclear factor-erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), whereas tetrahydrocurcumin [1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-3,5-heptanedione], one of curcumin in vivo metabolites, has no effect on HO-1 expression and Nrf2 activation. The aim of this study was to investigate whether dimethoxycurcumin [1,7-bis(4,3-dimethoxyphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione], a synthetic curcumin analogue with higher metabolic stability over curcumin, could induce HO-1 expression to the same extent as curcumin in RAW264.7 macrophages. Dimethoxycurcumin and curcumin, but not tetrahydrocurcumin, induced HO-1 expression and Nrf2 nuclear translocation, suggesting that the unsaturated nature of the diarylheptanoid chain of the compounds are crucial for HO-1 expression and Nrf2 activation. Blockage of Nrf2 synthesis by small interfering RNA abolished HO-1 expression by dimethoxycurcumin, indicating that dimethoxycurcumin may induce HO-1 expression via Nrf2 activation. In comparison, dimethoxycurcumin and curcumin had about the same effect on HO-1 expression, suggesting that dimethoxycurcumin retains the HO-1-inducing activity of its parent compound curcumin in RAW264.7 macrophages.
In dietary iron overload, excess hepatic iron promotes liver damage. The aim was to attenuate free radical-induced liver damage using vitamins. Four groups of 60 Wistar rats were studied: group 1 (control) was fed normal diet, group 2 (Fe) 2.5% pentacarbonyl iron (CI) followed by 0.5% Ferrocene, group 3 (Fe + V gp) CI, Ferrocene, plus vitamins A and E (42× and 10× RDA, respectively), group 4 (Fe – V gp) CI, Ferrocene diet, minus vitamins A and E. At 20 months, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC), Ames mutagenicity test, AST, ALT and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) immunohistochemistry were measured. 8OHdG levels of the Fe + V and Fe – V groups were 346 ± 117 and 455 ± 151, ng/g w.wt, respectively. Fe + V and Fe – V differences were significant (p<0.005). A positive correlation between DNA damage and mutagenesis existed (p<0.005) within the iron-fed gps. AST levels for Fe + V and Fe – V groups were 134.6 ± 48.6 IU and 202.2 ± 50.5 IU, respectively. Similarly, ALT levels were 234.6 ± 48.3 IU and 329.0 ± 48.6 IU, respectively. However, Fe – V and Fe + V groups transaminases were statistically insignificant. 4-HNE was detected in Fe + V and Fe – V gp livers. Vitamins A and E could not prevent hepatic damage.
(Di)bromotyrosine is formed by the specific reaction of eosinophil peroxidase and can be used as an eosinophil activation marker. In the present study, an antibody for (di)bromotyrosine in proteins was prepared to investigate the pathogenesis of eosinophil-related diseases such as allergic responses. A rabbit polyclonal antibody was raised against brominated keyhole limpet hemocyanin. The specificity of the antiserum was investigated with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The antiserum recognized brominated bovine serum albumin (BSA) and dibromotyrosine-conjugated BSA. The antiserum also reacted with chlorinated BSA and di-iodotyrosine-conjugated BSA. Moreover, the specificity of the antiserum was investigated using competitive ELISA. Dibromotyrosine and di-iodotyrosine inhibited the recognition of brominated BSA by the antiserum. However, the recognition of brominated BSA by the antiserum was not inhibited by bromotyrosine, chlorotyrosine, iodotyrosine, nitrotyrosine, aminotyrosine, phosphotyrosine, or tyrosine. These results suggested that the epitope of the antiserum is dihalogenated tyrosine. Immunohistochemically, the antiserum stained brominated rat eosinophils but not chlorinated or nitrated eosinophils. In conclusion, an antiserum for dihalogenated protein was prepared. It is expected that the antiserum will be useful for the analysis of the pathogenesis of allergic diseases such as asthma and atopic dermatitis.
The prevalence of type 2 diabetes has been increased in Thais. Resistin is an adipokine that involve in glucose homeostasis and is a candidate gene for type 2 diabetes. We performed a case-control study in representative sample of 200 Thai volunteers, 105 controls and 95 type 2 diabetes subjects. The purposes of the present study were to investigate the association between two SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) in the resistin gene, at positions +299(G>A) and −420(C>G), and biochemical parameters; to determine whether these polymorphisms are linked to increased risk of type 2 diabetes. At position +299(G>A) of the resistin gene, the resistin concentration among type 2 diabetes subjects was significantly higher in GA/AA genotypes (3.40 ng/ml) than the GG genotype (1.99 ng/ml). Resistin gene polymorphism at position +299(G>A) in type 2 diabetes patients was significantly more frequent than in the control group (p = 0.004). Polymorphism at position −420(C>G) showed no significant relationship with type 2 diabetes (p = 0.095). Logistic regression analysis was shown that +299(G>A) gene polymorphism was increased risk factors for type 2 diabetes (p = 0.013). In conclusion, these finding suggest that resistin gene polymorphism at position +299(G>A) has impact on the increased resistin concentrations and may influence susceptibility to type 2 diabetes in Thais.
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of the level of inhaled oxygen during resuscitation on the levels of free radicals and anti-oxidative capacity in the heparinized venous blood of preterm infants. Forty four preterm infants <35 weeks of gestation with mild to moderate neonatal asphyxia were randomized into two groups. The first group of infants were resuscitated with 100% oxygen (100% O2 group), while in the other group (reduced O2 group), the oxygen concentration was titrated according to pulse oximeter readings. We measured total hydroperoxide (TH) and redox potential (RP) in the plasma within 60 min of birth. The integrated excessive oxygen (∑(FiO2-0.21) × Time(min)) was higher in the 100% O2 group than in the reduced O2 group (p<0.0001). TH was higher in the 100% O2 group than in the reduced O2 group (p<0.0001). RP was not different between the 100% O2 and reduced O2 groups (p = 0.399). RP/TH ratio was lower in the 100% O2 group than in the reduced O2 group (p<0.01). We conclude that in the resuscitation of preterm infants with mild to moderate asphyxia, oxidative stress can be reduced by lowering the inspired oxygen concentration using a pulse oximeter.