Hexanal, a secondary product of lipid oxidation, was identified as the major volatile aldehyde generated from lipid peroxidation in human milk. Hexanal was quantified in human milk using solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography/flame ionization detection that required correction for recovery based on the fat content of human milk. Alpha-tocopherol was the only tocopherol isomer in human milk found to be significantly correlated with hexanal (R = −0.374, p<0.05) and the total antioxidant capacity of human milk (ORACFl (R = 0.408, p<0.01)). Ascorbic acid content was negatively correlated (R = −0.403, p<0.05) with hexanal, but not to ORACFl in human milk. The effect of Holder pasteurization on oxidative status of human milk was determined using multiple parameters that included, hexanal level and malondialdehyde as markers of lipid oxidation, vitamins C and E content and antioxidant capacity (e.g. ORACFl). Pasteurization did not affect the oxidative status of milk as measured by hexanal level, ORACFl and malondialdehyde content. We conclude that hexanal is a sensitive and useful chemical indicator for assessing peroxidation reactions in human milk and that alpha tocopherol and ascorbic acid are two key antioxidant components in milk that contribute to protection against oxidation of milk lipids.
Obesity and related adipocytokine disbalance increase the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. To determine the impact of increased levels of leptin, an obesity-related adipocytokine, on the recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma, we conducted a prospective case-series analysis. Eighty-five consecutive primary hepatocellular carcinoma patients at our hospital from January 2006 to December 2008 were analyzed. Serum leptin level significantly correlated with Body Mass Index, total body fat, and the amount of subcutaneous fat. They included 33 with stage I/II, who underwent curative treatment. The factors contributing to recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma, including leptin, were subjected to univariate and multivariate analyses using the Cox proportional hazards model. Body Mass Index (p = 0.0062), total body fat (p = 0.0404), albumin (p = 0.0210), α-fetoprotein (p = 0.0365), and leptin (p = 0.0003) were significantly associated with the recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma in univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis suggested that leptin (hazard ratio 1.25, 95% CI 1.07–1.49, p = 0.0035) was a sole independent predictor. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that recurrence-free survival was lower in patients with greater serum leptin concentrations (>5 ng/mL, p = 0.0221). These results suggest that the serum leptin level is a useful biomarker for predicting the early recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma.
The aim of the present study was to investigate correlation between plasma vitamin A, vitamin E, serum coenzyme Q10 levels and degree of insulin resistance in obese and normal weight people. The study was performed on 98 (21 Male, 77 Female) obese people and 78 (20 Male, 58 Female) control subjects. Vitamin A, E and coenzyme Q10 levels were adjusted to the lipid levels. Adjusted vitamin A and E and coenzyme Q10 levels of the obese female group were significantly lower than those of the control female group. Adjusted vitamin A and coenzyme Q10 levels of the obese male group were significantly lower than those of the control male group. Insulin resistance level of the obese female and male groups were significantly higher than that of the control female and male groups. There were no significant correlations between serum coenzyme Q10, plasma vitamin A and E levels and insulin resistance in obese and control subjects. Our findings show that it is essential to use the lipid adjusted levels of lipid soluble nutrients in obesity. Also, we have found no association between insulin resistance and vitamin A, vitamin E and coenzyme Q10 levels in obese subjects.
The role of trivalent chromium in improving glucose tolerance is well documented. Increased urinary chromium has been reported in type 2 diabetes mellitus, but it was not clear whether this had preceded diabetes mellitus, or was caused by it. Aim was to investigate the relationship between urinary chromium and the degree of insulin resistance in non-diabetic normotensive Saudi adults. 357 healthy adults aged 18–50 years were recruited randomly in a cross-sectional study design. Anthropometric and demographic information were taken. Insulin, glucose and free fatty acids were measured in fasting blood samples. Fasting urinary chromium and creatinine were also determined. Using modified QUICKI, subjects were labeled as high insulin resistant, or low insulin resistant. High insulin resistant subjects were matched for age and sex to low insulin resistant subjects. High insulin resistant subjects had higher mean BMI (p<0.001), mean waist circumference (p<0.01), and median urinary chromium (p<0.001) compared to low insulin resistant subgroup. Higher urinary chromium in high insulin resistant subgroup indicates a renal lesion leading to chromium deficiency and possibly diabetes mellitus eventually. Chromium supplementation might help to protect against the development of diabetes mellitus in this group of high insulin resistant non-diabetic Saudi individuals.
This study was to assess the resting energy expenditure of patients with esophageal cancer using indirect calorimetry. Eight male patients with esophageal cancer and eight male healthy controls were enrolled in this study. All patients underwent transthoracic esophagectomy with lymph nodes dissections. The resting energy expenditure was measured preoperatively, and on postoperative day 7 and 14 using indirect calorimetry. Preoperatively, the measured resting energy expenditure/body weight in these patients was significantly higher than that of the controls (23.3 ± 2.1 kcal/kg/day vs 20.4 ± 1.6 kcal/kg/day), whereas the measured/predicted energy expenditure from the Harris-Benedict equation ratio was 1.01 ± 0.09, which did not differ significantly from the control values. The measured resting energy expenditure/body weight was 27.3 ± 3.5 kcal/kg/day on postoperative day 7, and 23.7 ± 5.07 kcal/kg/day on postoperative day 14. Significant increases in the measured resting energy expenditure were observed on postoperative day 7, and the measured/predicted energy expenditure ratio was 1.17 ± 0.15. In conclusion, patients with operable esophageal cancers were almost normometabolic before surgery. On the other hand, the patients showed a hyper-metabolic status after esophagectomy. We recommended that nutritional management based on 33 kcal/body weight/day (calculated by the measured resting energy expenditure × active factor 1.2–1.3) may be optimal for patients undergoing esophagectomy.
Protection of the small intestine from mucosal injury induced by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs including acetylsalicylic acid is a critical issue in the field of gastroenterology. Polaprezinc an anti-ulcer drug, consisting of zinc and L-carnosine, provides gastric mucosal protection against various irritants. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of polaprezinc on acetylsalicylic acid-induced apoptosis of the RIE1 rat intestinal epithelial cell line. Confluent rat intestinal epithelial cells were incubated with 70 μM polaprezinc for 24 h, and then stimulated with or without 15 mM acetylsalicylic acid for a further 15 h. Subsequent cellular viability was quantified by fluorometric assay based on cell lysis and staining. Acetylsalicylic acid-induced cell death was also qualified by fluorescent microscopy of Hoechst33342 and propidium iodide. Heat shock proteins 70 protein expression after adding polaprezinc or acetylsalicylic acid was assessed by western blotting. To investigate the role of Heat shock protein 70, Heat shock protein 70-specific small interfering RNA was applied. Cell viability was quantified by fluorometric assay based on cell lysis and staining and apoptosis was analyzed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. We found that acetylsalicylic acid significantly induced apoptosis of rat intestinal epithelial cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Polaprezinc significantly suppressed acetylsalicylic acid-induced apoptosis of rat intestinal epithelial cells at its late phase. At the same time, polaprezinc increased Heat shock protein 70 expressions of rat intestinal epithelial cells in a time-dependent manner. However, in Heat shock protein 70-silenced rat intestinal epithelial cells, polaprezinc could not suppress acetylsalicylic acid -induced apoptosis at its late phase. We conclude that polaprezinc-increased Heat shock protein 70 expression might be an important mechanism by which polaprezinc suppresses acetylsalicylic acid-induced small intestinal apoptosis, a hallmark of acetylsalicylic acid-induced enteropathy.
Crocetin is a natural carotenoid compound of gardenia fruits and saffron, which has various effects in biological systems. In this study, we investigated the antioxidant effects of crocetin on reactive oxygen species such as hydroxyl radical using in vitro X-band electron spin resonance and spin trapping. Crocetin significantly inhibited hydroxyl radical generation compared with the control. Moreover, we performed electron spin resonance computed tomography ex vivo with the L-band electron spin resonance imaging system and determined the electron spin resonance signal decay rate in the isolated brain of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats, a high-oxidative stress model. Crocetin significantly reduced oxidative stress in the isolated brain by acting as a scavenger of reactive oxygen species, especially hydroxyl radical, as demonstrated by in vitro and ex vivo electron spin resonance analysis. The distribution of crocetin was also determined in the plasma and the brain of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats using high-performance liquid chromatography. After oral administration, crocetin was detected at high levels in the plasma and the brain. Our results suggest that crocetin may participate in the prevention of reactive oxygen species-induced disease due to a reduction of oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species in the brain.
Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) has recently emerged as a promising source of natural antioxidants. Because increased oxidative stress and impaired antioxidant defense mechanisms are important factors in the development of diabetic complications and many health claims have been reported for açai, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the possible protective effects of açai on the production of reactive oxygen species by neutrophils and on the liver antioxidant defense system in control and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diet supplementation with 2% açai was found to increase mRNA levels for gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase and glutathione peroxidase in liver tissue and to decrease reactive oxygen species production by neutrophils. Compared to control animals, diabetic rats exhibited lower levels of mRNA coding for Zn-superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase and higher levels of reactive oxygen species production by neutrophils, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and carbonyl proteins in hepatic tissues. Although açai supplementation was not effective in restore gene expression of antioxidant enzymes in diabetic rats, it showed a protective effect, decreasing thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances levels and increasing reduced glutathione content in the liver. These findings suggest that açai can modulate reactive oxygen species production by neutrophils and that it has a significant favorable effect on the liver antioxidant defense system under fisiological conditions of oxidative stress and partially revert deleterious effects of diabetes in the liver.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the glycemic index and peak incremental indices of six popular fruits in Taiwan, comparing healthy subjects (n = 20) and patients with Type 2 diabetes (n = 17). The six kinds of fruits tested were grapes, Asian pears, guavas, golden kiwifruit, lychees and bananas. Glycemic index values were tested according to the standard glycemic index testing protocol. The glycemic index and peak incremental indices were calculated according to published formulas. In Type 2 diabetes subjects, the glycemic index values of grapes, Asian pears, guavas, golden kiwifruit, lychees and bananas were 49.0 ± 4.5, 25.9 ± 2.9, 32.8 ± 5.2, 47.0 ± 6.5, 60.0 ± 8.0 and 41.3 ± 3.5. In healthy subjects, the glycemic index values were 49.1 ± 7.3, 18.0 ± 5.4, 31.1 ± 5.1, 47.3 ± 12.1, 47.9 ± 6.8 and 35.1 ± 5.6. There was no significant difference in glycemic index values between healthy and Type 2 diabetes subjects. There was also no significant difference in PII when comparing healthy subjects and subjects with Type 2 diabetes. In conclusion, glycemic index and peak incremental indices in healthy subjects can be approximately the same for Type 2 diabetes.
Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) concentration is the most commonly used marker for hepatocellular injury. We investigated the suitable cutoff value of serum ALT for the diagnosis or prediction of fatty liver. In 1578 Japanese adults (1208 men, 370 women; 35–69 years of age) who visited our center both in 2000 and between April 2007 and March 2008 (2007–2008), serum ALT concentration was an independent predictor of fatty liver in men in 2000 and in both sexes in 2007–2008. A significant increase in the frequency of fatty liver was detected in participants with elevated serum ALT concentrations, and serum levels of ALT in 2000 were associated with fatty liver in 2007–2008 when the cutoff value was set at 30 IU/L in men and 19 IU/L in women. The frequency of fatty liver in 2007–2008 was significantly lower in participants without fatty liver in 2000 whose serum ALT decreased between 2000 and 2007–2008. Our results suggest that serum ALT might be not only an indicator of fatty liver but also a predictor of the regression of fatty liver, and cutoff values of serum ALT of 30 IU/L in men and 19 IU/L in women are suitable for the screening of fatty liver.
In order to clarify the mechanism by polyphenols of protective effects against oxidative damage or by quinolinic acid of its neurotoxic and inflammatory actions, effects of polyphenols or quinolinic acid on the radical formation were examined. The ESR measurements showed that some polyphenols such as caffeic acid, catechol, gallic acid, D-(+)-catechin, L-dopa, chlorogenic acid and L-noradrenaline inhibited the formation of radicals in the reaction mixture of rat liver microsomes with ADP, Fe3+ and NADPH. The ESR measurements showed that α-picolinic acid, 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid and quinolinic acid (2,3-pyridinedicarboxylic acid) enhanced the formation of radicals in the reaction mixture of rat liver microsomes with Fe3+ and NADPH. Caffeic acid and α-picolinic acid had no effects on the formation of radicals in the presence of EDTA, suggesting that the chelation of iron ion seems to be related to the inhibitory and enhanced effects. The polyphenols may exert protective effects against oxidative damage of erythrocyte membrane, ethanol-induced fatty livers, cardiovascular diseases, inflammatory and cancer through the mechanism. On the other hand, quinolinic acid may exert its neurotoxic and inflammatory effects because of the enhanced effect on the radical formation.
Endoscopic submucosal dissection has made it possible to resect large lesions during a single operation. The present study was undertaken to compare the time taken for recovery from artificial ulcers after endoscopic submucosal dissection between an H2 Receptor Antagonist treatment group and a Proton Pump Inhibitor treatment group, focusing on analysis of the time course of reduction rate in ulcer area. The powerful acid suppression by Proton Pump Inhibitor may not be needed to treat Japanese post-endoscopic submucosal dissection ulcer which usually develops after early gastric carcinoma in the mucosa of low acid secretory capacity. The study involved 60 patients with 69 artificial ulcers following endoscopic submucosal dissection for the treatment of tumors remaining in the gastric mucosa. Of all lesions, 36 were allocated to the H2 Receptor Antagonist group and 33 to the Proton Pump Inhibitor group. Patients in both groups underwent endoscopy at 4 and 8 weeks after the start of administration. There were no significant differences between two groups and ulcer healing rates were similar in the two groups. The efficacy of H2 Receptor Antagonists in curing this type of ulcer can thus be expected to be comparable to that of Proton Pump Inhibitors.