Annatto has been identified as carotenoids that have antioxidative effects. It is well known that one of the key elements in the development of diabetic complications is oxidative stress. The immune system is especially vulnerable to oxidative damage because many immune cells, such as neutrophils, produce reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species as part of the body’s defense mechanisms to destroy invading pathogens. Reactive oxygen species/reactive nitrogen species are excessively produced by active peripheral neutrophils, and may damage essential cellular components, which in turn can cause vascular complications in diabetes. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the possible protective effects of annatto on the reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide (NO) inhibition in neutrophils from alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Adult female rats were divided into six groups based on receiving either a standard diet with or without supplementation of annatto extract or beta carotene. All animals were sacrificed 30 days after treatment and the neutrophils were isolated using two gradients of different densities. The reactive oxygen species and NO were quantified by a chemiluminescence and spectrophotometric assays, respectively. Our results show that neutrophils from diabetic animals produce significantly more reactive oxygen species and NO than their respective controls and that supplementation with beta carotene and annatto is able to modulate the production of these species. Annatto extract may have therapeutic potential for modulation of the balance reactive oxygen species/NO induced by diabetes.
The plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G/5G and tissue plasminogen activator Alu-repeat insertion/deletion polymorphisms might be genetic determinations of increased or decreased of their plasma activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G/5G and tissue plasminogen activator Alu-repeat I/D polymorphisms with metabolic syndrome parameters in normal Malaysian subjects and to assess the impact of these polymorphisms on their plasma activities and antigens. The genetic polymorphisms were genotyped in 130 normal subjects. In addition, the plasma activities and antigens of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and tissue plasminogen activator as well as levels of insulin, glucose, and lipid profile at fasting state were investigated. The subjects with homozygous 4G/4G showed association with an increased triglyceride (p = 0.007), body mass index (p = 0.01) and diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.03). In addition, the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G/5G polymorphism modulates plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity and antigen and tissue plasminogen activator activity (p = 0.002, 0.014, 0.003) respectively. These results showed that, the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G/5G polymorphism is associated with metabolic syndrome parameters, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and tissue plasminogen activator activities in Malaysian subjects, and may serve to increase the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in Malaysian subjects.
The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of pectin solution, which increases the viscosity of liquid nutrient, for prevention of gastro-esophageal reflux in comparison with half-solid nutrient. The subjects were 10 elderly patients undergoing percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy feeding. Twenty-four-hour esophageal multichannel intraluminal impedance and pH testing was performed during intake of half-solid nutrient and a combination of pectin solution and liquid nutrient. During 4 h after delivery, there was no significant difference in the total number of gastro-esophageal reflux events between the feeding of the half-solid nutrient and the combination of pectin solution and liquid nutrient (5.7 ± 1.2 vs 5.3 ± 1.0/4 h). Acidic reflux after delivery of the half-solid nutrient was significantly more frequent than that after delivery of the combination of pectin solution and liquid nutrient (80.7% vs 60.4%, p = 0.018). The incidence of gastro-esophageal reflux reaching the upper portion of the esophagus tended to be higher during delivery of the half-solid nutrient than during delivery of the combination of pectin solution and liquid nutrient (47.4% vs 34.0%, p = 0.153). In conclusion, the usage of pectin solution combined with liquid nutrient is effective for preventing acidic gastro-esophageal reflux and gastro-esophageal reflux reaching the upper portion of the esophagus.
Imbalance between reactive oxygen species generation and antioxidant capacity induces a condition known as oxidative stress which is implicated in numerous pathological processes. In this study we evaluated whether natural zeolites chabazite/phillipsite/analcime may affect the levels of different antioxidant enzymes (gluthatione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, gluthatione reductase), total antioxidant status and oxidative stress in 25 clinically healthy men, both non-smokers and smokers. Measurements were performed on whole blood or on plasma samples before (T0) and after 4-weeks zeolites intake (T1). At T1, gluthatione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and gluthatione reductase increased compared to T0 levels, both considering all subjects as joint and after subdivision in non-smokers and smokers. Differently, a reduction in total antioxidant status was observed at T1. Anyway, total antioxidant status resulted higher than the reference values in both groups at each time point. A decrease in lipid peroxidation, a major indicator of oxidative stress assessed by monitoring thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, was also observed in all subjects at T1. Our results suggested that chabazite/phillipsite/analcime may help to counteract oxidative stress in apparently healthy subjects exposed to different oxidative stress risk factors, such as smoking, thus representing a particular kind of food with potential antioxidant properties.
Myocardial infarction is a major public health concern and the leading cause of death throughout the world. The present study investigates the ability of Aegle marmelos fruit extract to prevent pathological changes and oxidative stress after isoproterenol induced myocardial infarction in rats. In vitro studies showed that Aegle marmelos fruit extract possesses antioxidant activity. Administration of isoproterenol (85 mg/kg body weight) to rats resulted in significantly elevated plasma transaminases, lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase, however, cardiac tissue analyses showed decreased activity of the above enzymes compared to experimental control rats. Further, isoproterenol administration significantly increased plasma and cardiac tissue thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and lowered the activities of cardiac tissue superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase when compared to control groups. Pretreatment with Aegle marmelos fruit extract at a dose of 150 mg/kg body weight for a period of 45 days significantly prevented the observed alterations. Our data suggest that Aegle marmelos fruit extract exerts its protective effect by decreasing thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and elevating antioxidants status in isoproterenol treated rats. Both biochemical and histopathological results in the isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction model emphasize the beneficial action of Aegle marmelos fruit extract as a cardioprotective agent.
We investigated the correlation between symptomatic improvement and quality of life in Japanese gastroesophageal reflux disease patients with PPI. Eighty one patients with reflux and dyspeptic symptom were enrolled. The evaluation of the symptom was used he Frequency Scale for the Symptom of GERD in 3 categories: total score of 12 questions, score related to reflux symptoms, and score related to dyspeptic symptoms and the evaluation of the quality of life was use the 8-item Short Form Health Survey in 2 categories, the physical component summary score and mental component summary score. All patients administered rabeprazole 10 mg/day for 8 weeks. We investigated the correlation between symptomatic improvement with proton pump inhibitor and quality of life. Significant symptomatic improvement was seen in the total score of 12 questions (26.7 ± 8.8 → 17.5 ± 5.9, p<0.0001), score related to reflux symptoms (14.9 ± 5.4 → 9.6 ± 3.6, p<0.0001), and score related to dyspeptic symptoms (11.8 ± 4.3 → 8.0 ± 2.9, p<0.0001). Significant improvement in quality of life was seen in the physical component summary score (47.8 ± 6.6 → 50.0 ± 5.9, p = 0.0209) and mental component summary score (47.4 ± 8.5 → 50.4 ± 5.3, p = 0.0133) with proton pump inhibitor. With proton pump inhibitor, a significant positive correlation was seen between the improvement rates in total score of 12 questions, score related to dyspeptic symptoms and in mental component summary score at 8 weeks (total score of 12 questions: r = 0.275, p = 0.0265, score related to dyspeptic symptoms: r = 0.367, p = 0.0027). In conclusion, quality of life was associated with improvement in dyspeptic symptoms with proton pump inhibitor treatment.
Several mechanisms regarding the adverse health effects of nanomaterials have been proposed. Among them, oxidative stress is considered to be one of the most important. Many in vitro studies have shown that nanoparticles generate reactive oxygen species, deplete endogenous antioxidants, alter mitochondrial function and produce oxidative damage in DNA. 8-Hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine is a major type of oxidative DNA damage, and is often analyzed as a marker of oxidative stress in human and animal studies. In this study, we focused on the in vivo toxicity of metal oxide and silver nanoparticles. In particular, we analyzed the induction of micronucleated reticulocyte formation and oxidative stress in mice treated with nanoparticles (CuO, Fe3O4, Fe2O3, TiO2, Ag). For the micronucleus assay, peripheral blood was collected from the tail at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h after an i.p. injection of nanoparticles. Following the administration of nanoparticles by i.p. injection to mice, the urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine levels were analyzed by the HPLC-ECD method, to monitor the oxidative stress. The levels of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine in liver DNA were also measured. The results showed increases in the reticulocyte micronuclei formation in all nanoparticle-treated groups and in the urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine levels. The 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine levels in the liver DNA of the CuO-treated group increased in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, the metal nanoparticles caused genotoxicity, and oxidative stress may be responsible for the toxicity of these metal nanoparticles.
During endoscopic examinations we collected fluid in the stomach that included reflux fluid from the duodenum, and assessed the effect of quantitatively determined bile acids on glandular atrophy and intestinal metaplasia using biopsy specimens. A total of 294 outpatients were enrolled in this study. Total bile acid concentration was measured by an enzyme immunoassay. Glandular atrophy and intestinal metaplasia scores were graded according to the Updated Sydney System. An effect of refluxed bile acids on atrophy and intestinal metaplasia was shown in the high-concentration reflux group in comparison with the control group. However, when the odds ratios (ORs) were calculated according to whether Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection was present, no significant associations were shown between reflux bile acids and atrophy in either the H. pylori-positive cases or -negative cases. The same was true for intestinal metaplasia in the H. pylori-positive cases, whereas intestinal metaplasia was more pronounced in the high-concentration reflux group in the H. pylori-negative cases (OR 2.4, 95%CI 1.1–5.6). We could not clarify the effect of the reflux of bile acids into the stomach in the progression of atrophy. High-concentration bile acids had an effect on the progression of intestinal metaplasia in the H. pylori-negative cases.
Hyperhomocysteinemia is more commonly associated with vascular disease in Indians than in the western populations. It is caused by genetic polymorphisms or dietary deficiencies of the B vitamins. We attempted to identify the association of hyperhomocysteinemia with vitamin B12 and folate in Indian patients of vascular disease. Homocysteine, vitamin B12 and folate levels were estimated in 100 controls and 100 patients of vascular disease. Homocysteine estimation was repeated in 73 patients on different vitamin supplements for 6 months. Homocysteine exhibited a significant negative correlation with B12 only in cerebrovascular disease and peripheral vascular diseasepatients, and with folate in coronary artery disease and cerebrovascular disease patients as well as controls. Single daily dose of folate was as effective as a combination of folate and cobalamin in reducing plasma homocysteine concentrations. Low levels of B12 contribute to the higher incidence of cerebrovascular disease and peripheral vascular disease, and low folate levels account for higher prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia in coronary artery disease and cerebrovascular disease. Moreover, irrespective of the cause of hyperhomocysteinemia, folate is known to ameliorate it. Hence, large-scale corrective measures like food fortification or dietary supplementation with folate might benefit the Indian population and reduce the incidence and morbidity of vascular disease.
Stanniocalcin 1 and stanniocalcin 2 are two glycoprotein hormones, which act as calcium phosphate-regulating factor on intestine and kidney. We have previously reported that stanniocalcin 2 expression is positively and negatively controlled by 1,25(OH)2D3 and parathyroid hormone in renal proximal tubular cells. However, it has been unclear whether they regulate the stanniocalcin 1 gene expression. In this study, we identified the opossum stanniocalcin 1 cDNA sequence. The opossum stanniocalcin 1 amino acid sequence had 83% homology with human stanniocalcin 1, and has a conserved putative N-linked glycosylation site. Real-time PCR analysis using opossum kidney proximal tubular (OK-P) cells revealed that the mRNA levels of stanniocalcin 1 gene is up-regulated by both 1,25(OH)2D3 and parathyroid hormone in dose-dependent and time-dependent manners. We also demonstrated that the stanniocalcin 1 expression was increased in parathyroid hormone injected rat kidney. Furthermore, the mRNA expression of stanniocalcin 1 and stanniocalcin 2 were oppositely regulated by phorbol 12,13-myristic acetate, a specific PKC activator. Interestingly, the up-regulation of stanniocalcin 1 gene by 1,25(OH)2D3 and phorbol 12,13-myristic acetate were not prevented in the presence of actinomycin D, an RNA synthesis inhibitor. These results suggest that the stanniocalcin 1 gene expression is up-regulated by 1,25(OH)2D3 and parathyroid hormone through mRNA stabilization in renal proximal tubular cells.
Here, we focused on the effects of racemic α-lipoic acid on proliferation and adhesion properties of 3Y1 rat fibroblasts and the v-H-ras-transformed derivative, HR-3Y1-2 cells. Racemic α-lipoic acid inhibited proliferation of HR-3Y1-2 but not 3Y1 cells at 0.3 and 1.0 mM. R-(+)-α-lipoic acid also inhibited proliferation of HR-3Y1-2 cells equivalent to that of racemic α-lipoic acid. In addition, racemic α-lipoic acid decreased intracellular reactive oxygen species levels in HR-3Y1 cells but not 3Y1 cells. Next, we evaluated the effects of racemic α-lipoic acid on cell adhesion to fibronectin. The results indicated that racemic α-lipoic acid decreased adhesive ability of HR-3Y1-2 cells to fibronectin-coated plates. As blocking antibody experiment revealed that β1-integrin plays a key role in cell adhesion in this experimental system, the effects of racemic α-lipoic acid on the expression of β1-integrin were examined. The results indicated that racemic α-lipoic acid selectively downregulated the expression of cell surface β1-integrin expression in HR-3Y1-2 cells. Intriguingly, exogenous hydrogen peroxide upregulated cell surface β1-integrin expression in 3Y1 cells. Taken together, these data suggest that reduction of intracellular reactive oxygen species levels by α-lipoic acid could be an effective means of ameliorating abnormal growth and adhesive properties in v-H-ras transformed cells.
Alzheimer’s disease is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder, the most common among the dementing illnesses. Acetaminophen has gaining importance in neurodegenerative diseases by attenuating the dopaminergic neurodegeneration in Caenorhabditis elegans model, decreasing the chemokines and the cytokines and increasing the anti apoptotic protein such as Bcl-2 in neuronal cell culture. The low concentration acetaminophen improved the facilitation to find the hidden platform in Morris Water Maze Test. Also some data suggest that acetaminophen could contribute in neurodegeneration. The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of acetaminophen against colchicine induced cognitive impairment and oxidative stress in wistar rats. The cognitive learning and memory behaviour was assessed using step through passive avoidance paradigm and acetylcholine esterase activity. The parameters of oxidative stress were assessed by measuring the malondialdehyde, reduced glutathione and catalase levels in the whole brain homogenates. There was a significant memory improvement in the rats received acetaminophen treatment and it has also decreased the acetylcholine esterase enzyme level, confirming its nootropic activity. Acetaminophen neither increases nor decreases the reduced glutathione and catalase in the whole brain homogenates, showing that acetaminophen is devoid of any adverse effect on brain antioxidant defense system.