Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
Online ISSN : 1880-5086
Print ISSN : 0912-0009
ISSN-L : 0912-0009
Advance online publication
Showing 1-20 articles out of 20 articles from Advance online publication
  • Naoki Horii, Natsuki Hasegawa, Shumpei Fujie, Keiko Iemitsu, Masataka ...
    Type: Original Article
    Article ID: 19-124
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: June 30, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Androgen hormones are important compounds related to body composition and exercise performance in athletes. The intake of Dioscorea esculenta, known as lesser yam, contains diosgenin and resistance training have been shown to normalize the secretion of androgen hormones. This study aimed to clarify the level of androgen hormone secretion and the effects of Dioscorea esculenta intake with resistance training on muscle hypertrophy and strength in athletes. First, in a cross-sectional study, we compared the serum androgen hormone [dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), testosterone, and 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT)] levels between sprint athletes (n = 15) and non-athletes (n = 15). Second, in an 8-week intervention study, sprint athletes were randomly divided into 2 groups: resistance training with placebo (n = 8) or with Dioscorea esculenta (2,000 mg/day) intake (n = 7). The serum DHEA, free testosterone, and DHT levels were lower in athletes than in non-athletes. Dioscorea esculenta intake combined with resistance training increased the arm fat-free mass, the 1 repetition maximum of deadlift and snatch, and the serum DHEA, free testosterone, and DHT levels, compared with resistance training and placebo intake. The results suggested that Dioscorea esculenta intake combined with resistance training has further effects on muscle hypertrophy and strength in athletes by restoring secretion of androgen hormones.

    Download PDF (304K)
  • Kazuhiro Mizukami, Makoto Katsuta, Kazuhisa Okamoto, Kensuke Fukuda, R ...
    Type: Original Article
    Article ID: 20-17
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: June 30, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    The Helicobacter pylori infection and functional dyspepsia are often coexisted. The effect of acotiamide, a drug for functional dyspepsia, on the result of Helicobacter pylori diagnosis has yet to be studied. We evaluated the influence of acotiamide on the results of Helicobacter pylori diagnosis in the 13C-urea breath test. Twenty patients with Helicobacter pylori-positive functional dyspepsia were treated with 100 mg of acotiamide three times a day for two weeks. Changes in 13C-urea breath test were investigated before and after administration, and two weeks after administration as the follow-up period. The 13C-urea breath test and the medical questionnaire of modified frequency scale for the symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease were conducted at every period. Nineteen patients were included for analysis. No patients showed negative in 13C-urea breath test at Weeks 2 and 4. On the symptom scale, dyspepsia and total scores decreased from Week 0 to Week 2 and increased from Week 2 to Week 4, and the improvement rates of the dyspepsia score at Week 2 was 63%. In conclusion, we confirmed that acotiamide is unlikely to influence the result of 13C-urea breath test and it may improve the symptoms of functional dyspepsia during Helicobacter pylori eradication treatment.

    Download PDF (399K)
  • Takahiro Sekikawa, Yuki Kizawa, Yanmei Li, Tsuyoshi Takara
    Type: Original Article
    Article ID: 19-116
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: June 19, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    We examined the effects of the mixed ingestion of astaxanthin derived from Haematococcus pluvialis and tocotrienols on the cognitive function of healthy Japanese adults who feel a memory decline. Forty-four subjects were randomly but equally assigned to the astaxanthin-tocotrienols or placebo group. An astaxanthin-tocotrienols or placebo capsule was taken once daily before or after breakfast for a 12-week intervention period. The primary outcome was composite memory from the Cognitrax cognitive test, and the secondary outcomes were other cognitive functions and subjective symptoms for memory. Each group included 18 subjects in the efficacy analysis (astaxanthin-tocotrienols group, 55.4 ± 7.9 years; placebo group, 54.6 ± 6.9 years). The astaxanthin-tocotrienols group showed a significant improvement in composite memory and verbal memory in Cognitrax at Δ12 weeks compared with the placebo group. Additionally, the astaxanthin-tocotrienols group showed a significant improvement in the subjective symptom of ”During the last week, have you had trouble remembering people’s names or the names of things?” compared with the placebo group after 12 weeks. No adverse events were observed in this study. The results demonstrated that taking an astaxanthin-tocotrienols combination improves the composite memory and verbal memory of Japanese adults who feel a memory decline (UMIN 000031758).

    Download PDF (549K)
  • Tianli Zhang, Hiroyasu Tsutsuki, Katushiko Ono, Takaaki Akaike, Tomohi ...
    Type: Serial Review
    Article ID: 20-13
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: June 19, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Cysteine persulfide (CysSSH) and polysulfides (CysS[S]nH, n>1) are cysteine derivatives having sulfane sulfur atoms bound to cysteine thiol. Recent advances in the development of analytical methods for detection and quantification of persulfides and polysulfides have revealed the biological presence, in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, of persulfide/polysulfide in diverse forms such as CysSSH, glutathione persulfide and protein persulfides. Accumulating evidence has suggested that persulfide/polysulfide species may involve in a variety of biological events such as biosyntheses of sulfur-containing molecules, tRNA modification, regulation of redox-dependent signal transduction, mitochondrial energy metabolism via sulfur respiration, cytoprotection from oxidative stress via their antioxidant activities, and anti-inflammation against Toll-like receptor-mediated inflammatory responses. Development of chemical sulfur donors may facilitate further understanding of physiological and pathophysiological roles of persulfide/polysulfide species, including regulatory roles of these species in immune responses.

    Download PDF (262K)
  • Tomoko Komatsu, Kyo Kobayashi, Yoshinari Morimoto, Eva Helmerhorst, Fr ...
    Type: Original Article
    Article ID: 19-75
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: June 09, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Proline-rich proteins are associated with the formation of an acquired protein layer overlying the tooth enamel surface. Previous studies have described the antioxidant activity of salivary histatin against the hydroxyl radical from Fenton’s reaction, acting as the critical reactive oxygen species. However, the role of proline-rich proteins in mitigating the oxidative stress caused by reactive oxygen species in the oral cavity remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the antioxidant effects of proline-rich proteins 2 on direct reactive oxygen species using electron spin resonance spectroscopy. For the first time, we demonstrated that proline-rich proteins 2 exhibits antioxidant activity directly against the hydroxyl radical produced by hydrogen peroxide with ultraviolet. Considering that identical results were obtained when assaying 30 residues of proline-rich proteins 2, the direct antioxidant effects against the hydroxyl radical by proline-rich proteins 2 may be related to these specific 30 residues.

    Download PDF (471K)
  • Yuki Niida, Masashi Masuda, Yuichiro Adachi, Aika Yoshizawa, Hirokazu ...
    Type: Original Article
    Article ID: 20-24
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: June 09, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Skeletal muscle atrophy is associated with mortality and poor prognosis in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, underlying mechanism by which CKD causes muscle atrophy has not been completely understood. The quality of lipids (lipoquality), which is defined as the functional features of diverse lipid species, has recently been recognized as the pathology of various diseases. In this study, we investigated the roles of the stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD), which catalyzes the conversion of saturated fatty acids into monounsaturated fatty acids, in skeletal muscle on muscle atrophy in CKD model animals. In comparison to control rats, CKD rats decreased the SCD activity and its gene expression in atrophic gastrocnemius muscle. Next, oleic acid blocked the reduction of the thickness of C2C12 myotubes and the increase of the endoplasmic reticulum stress induced by SCD inhibitor. Furthermore, endoplasmic reticulum stress inhibitor ameliorated CKD-induced muscle atrophy (the weakness of grip strength and the decrease of muscle fiber size of gastrocnemius muscle) in mice and the reduction of the thickness of C2C12 myotubes by SCD inhibitor. These results suggest that the repression of SCD activity causes muscle atrophy through excessive endoplasmic reticulum stress in CKD.

    Download PDF (797K)
  • Ken-ichiro Matsumoto, Megumi Ueno, Ikuo Nakanishi, Hiroko P. Indo, Hid ...
    Type: Original Article
    Article ID: 20-34
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: June 03, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    To clarify a possible index for long-term and low-dose irradiation, the effects of repeated low-dose X-ray irradiation on the amount of melanin-derived radicals in mouse hair and tail skin were investigated. Eight-week-old female C3H/HeSlc mice were irradiated by X-rays at a dose of 100 mGy/day 5 days/week for 12 weeks. Similarly, a 4-week irradiation experiment was carried out at 500 mGy/day for C3H/HeSlc mice, or at 10, 100, and 500 mGy/day for 8-week-old female C57BL/6NCrSlc mice. The hair sample (~10 mg) was weighed accurately and stuffed into a plastic tube. The 2-cm tip of the tail was sampled and lyophilized. Melanin-derived radicals in hair and tail samples were measured by X-band electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometry. After X-ray irradiation at 100 mGy/day for 12 weeks, no difference was found in the amount of melanin-derived radicals in the hair of the irradiated and non-irradiated groups. X-ray irradiation at 500 mGy/day for 4 weeks increased the amount of melanin-derived radicals in hair compared with the non-irradiated group, but the baseline amount of melanin-derived radicals in hair was varied. The amount of melanin-derived radicals in the tail skin dose-dependently increased. Melanin-derived radicals in skin may be an endogenous marker for long-term and low-dose irradiation.

    Download PDF (467K)
  • Yiling Zheng, Fan Wu, Weiqi Rong, Yunhe Liu, Tana Siqin, Liming Wang, ...
    Type: Original Article
    Article ID: 20-27
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 15, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Our study is to investigate the preoperative prognostic value of the Controlling Nutritional Status score in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma patients after curative resection. One hundred and sixty-seven patients admitted to our hospital between January 2012 and December 2018 were included retrospectively. Time-dependent receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was conducted to evaluate the ability of the Controlling Nutritional Status score to predict recurrence and survival. Patients with high Controlling Nutritional Status score (≥3) had significantly poorer RFS compared to those with low Controlling Nutritional Status score (low: <3) (p = 0.000) in Kaplan–Meier survival curve. Multivariate analyses identified Controlling Nutritional Status score, lymph node metastasis, tumor numbers and preoperative CEA as independent prognostic factors for RFS. Lymph node metastasis was the independent risk factor of OS. The Cox regression model with Controlling Nutritional Status score had better prognostic value for recurrence than the Cox regression model without Controlling Nutritional Status score in long-time alcohol consumption intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma patients (AUC: 0.760 vs 0.706, p = 0.036). CONUT score may be a more powerful prognostic biomarker, which is tightly associated with other tumor characteristics, to predict recurrence but not survival, especially in long-time alcohol consumption intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma patients after curative-intent surgery.

    Download PDF (638K)
  • Hiroko Morita, Yasuo Shimizu, Yusuke Nakamura, Hiroaki Okutomi, Taiji ...
    Type: Original Article
    Article ID: 20-5
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 15, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    Supplementary material

    Some patients with interstitial pneumonia (IP) have auto-antibodies, but do not fit the criteria for specific connective tissue diseases. Examination of auto-antibodies is recommended for diagnosis idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. A prospective cohort study was performed in 285 patients with IP. Eleven auto-antibodies were assessed and patients were followed for 2 years. All 285 patients underwent the myositis panel test (MPT) for 11 auto-antibodies. Among them, 23.5% (67/285) of the patients had a positive MPT and 14.7% (42/285) had connective tissue diseases. Among the 49 MPT positive patients without connective tissue diseases, 29 patients (59.2%) were positive for Ro52, including 17 patients with Ro52 mono-positivity. Among interstitial pneumonia patients without connective tissue diseases, the Ro52 mono-positive patients showed worse at 2-years survival than those who were Ro52 negative (p = 0.022, HR = 5.88, 95% CI 1.29–26.75). Most of the Ro52 positive patients also showed a low titer of anti-nucleolar antibody. About 20% of IP patients had auto-antibodies detectable by the MPT, and Ro52 positive patients accounted for more than half of the MPT positive patients without connective tissue diseases. Detection of Ro52 auto-antibodies may be useful for assessing the risk of progression in idiopathic interstitial pneumonia patients without connective tissue diseases and a low anti-nucleolar antibody titer.

    Download PDF (430K)
  • Yuhei Ohta, Mitsuyasu Kawaguchi, Naoya Ieda, Hidehiko Nakagawa
    Type: Original Article
    Article ID: 20-9
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 15, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    Supplementary material

    Lysine methylation is one of the most important modification, which is regulated by histone lysine methyltransferases and histone lysine demethylases. Lysine-specific demethylace 1 (LSD1) specifically demethylates mono- and dimethyl-lysine on histone H3 (H3K4Me/Me2, H3K9Me/Me2) to control chromatin structure, resulting in transcriptional repression or activation of target genes. Furthermore, LSD1 is overexpressed in various cancers. Therefore, LSD1 inhibitors would be not only potential therapeutic agents for cancers but also chemical tools to research biological significance of LSD1 in physiological and pathological events. However, known assay methods to date have some inherent drawbacks. The development of simple method in detecting LSD1 activity has been indispensable to identify useful inhibitors. In this study, we designed and synthesized artificial substrates based on inhibitors of LSD1 to examine LSD1 activity by an absorption increment.

    Download PDF (566K)
  • Koji Otani, Toshio Watanabe, Satoshi Kosaka, Yuji Matsumoto, Akinobu N ...
    Type: Original Article
    Article ID: 20-21
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 08, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Subjects with a high-negative titer (3–9.9 U/ml) of serum anti-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) antibody represent a heterogeneous group of currently H. pylori-infected, H. pylori-uninfected, and previously H. pylori-infected cases. We investigated the characteristics of subjects with a high-negative titer during a medical check-up and the utility of H. pylori infection score, the sum of scores of endoscopic findings based on the Kyoto Classification of Gastritis, for diagnosing H. pylori infection. Subjects with 13C-urea breath test-positive or H. pylori stool antigen test-positive were diagnosed as currently H. pylori-infected. Although around half of subjects with a high-negative titer were after eradication therapy (48.6%), currently H. pylori-infected were considerably confirmed (11.7%). H. pylori infection score showed a high value of area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [0.92; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.84–1.00] with the most suitable cut-off value of 1.0 (sensitivity: 0.92; specificity: 0.90). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that H. pylori infection score was an independent factor associated with increased prevalence of H. pylori infection (odds ratio, 9.53; 95% CI, 2.64–34.40; p<0.001). Currently H. pylori-infected subjects were considerably included among the subjects with a high-negative titer, and the Kyoto Classification of Gastritis was useful to predict current H. pylori infection.

    Download PDF (463K)
  • Li-Ying Xu, Min Mu, Man-Li Wang, Jin-Cheng Liu, Yuan-Jie Zhou, Jing Wu ...
    Type: Original Article
    Article ID: 19-95
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: April 17, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Our study was to understand the autophagy induce by different ratios and concentrations of LA/DHA on Raw264.7 cell, and then to investigate the effect of Raw264.7 autophagy on the clearance of Staphylococcus aureus. Raw264.7 cells was treated by LA/DHA in different concentrations (50/100 µmol/L) and ratios (4:1, 6:1, 8:1, 1:4, 1:6 and 1:8) for 6/12/24 h, cell viability assay was assessed by Cell Counting Kit-8, LC3B, p62, P-mTOR, P-Akt, P-PI3K and BECN 1 were detected by the Western blot. LA/DHA could induce autophagy of Raw264.7 cells through the PI3K-Akt-mTOR signaling pathway, the strong effect on autophagy by the concentration is 100 µmol/L, the ratio is 6:1 of LA/DHA, and the treatment time is 24 h. Compared with the images in the control group obtained by merging red and green fluorescence channels, the treatment of LA, DHA in a ratio of 6:1 at a concentration of 100 µmol/L for 24 h significantly lead to a substantial number of autophagosomes (yellow) as well as autolysosomes (red), enhancing autophagy flux. Autophagy induce by LA/DHA can devour and damage intracellular and extracellular Staphylococcus aureus. These results indicate that LA/DHA cloud induce autophagy and enhance the phagocytosis and killing ability of macrophages to intracellular parasitic bacteria.

    Download PDF (1206K)
  • Tetsuo Adachi, Yumiko Matsuda, Rika Ishii, Tetsuro Kamiya, Hirokazu Ha ...
    Type: Original Article
    Article ID: 19-104
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: April 09, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Non-thermal plasma (NTP) is applicable to living cells and has emerged as a novel technology for cancer therapy. NTP affect cells not only by direct irradiation, but also by an indirect treatment with previously prepared plasma-activated liquid. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have the potential to enhance susceptibility to anticancer drugs and radiation because these reagents decondense the compact chromatin structure by neutralizing the positive charge of the histone tail. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the advantage of the combined application of plasma-activated acetated Ringer’s solution (PAA) and HDAC inhibitors on A549 cancer cells. PAA maintained its ability for at least 1 week stored at any temperature tested. Cell death was enhanced more by combined regimens of PAA and HDAC inhibitors, such as trichostatin A (TSA) and valproic acid (VPA), than by a single PAA treatment and was accompanied by ROS production, DNA breaks, and mitochondria dysfunction through a caspase-independent pathway. These phenomena induced the depletion of ATP and elevations in intracellular calcium concentrations. The sensitivities of HaCaT cells as normal cells to PAA were less than that of A549 cells. These results suggest that HDAC inhibitors synergistically induce the sensitivity of cancer cells to PAA.

    Download PDF (869K)
  • Tomonori Soyama, Hiroshi Masutani, Cristiane Lumi Hirata, Eri Iwai-Kan ...
    Type: Original Article
    Article ID: 19-108
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: April 09, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    Supplementary material

    Thioredoxin is a low molecular weight (approximately 12 kDa) redox protein, and protects against harmful stimuli such as oxidative stress. Smoking evokes oxidative stress, among other biological responses. The clinical relevance of thioredoxin in smoking has not been fully investigated. Here, we examined the effects of smoking on serum and urinary thioredoxin levels, in comparison with various stress markers. Serum thioredoxin levels in the smoking group (10 subjects) were significantly higher than those of the non-smoking group (5 subjects). After smoking, serum thioredoxin levels significantly decreased, while urinary levels significantly increased. On the other hand, the levels of serum and salivary cortisol, plasma norepinephrine, salivary amylase, salivary thioredoxin, and urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine levels before and after smoking were not significantly different. These results suggest that a decrease in thioredoxin in the serum and the concomitant increase in the urine is a novel sensitive marker of biological stress responses induced by smoking. The change seems to be evoked by mechanisms different from hormonal or 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine-forming stress responses.

    Download PDF (303K)
  • Sakiko Amekura, Misuzu Nakajima, Mami Watanabe, Makoto Saitoh, Sayaka ...
    Type: Original Article
    Article ID: 19-115
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: April 09, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    3-Methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one (edaravone) is a synthetic one-electron antioxidant used as a drug for treatment against acute phase cerebral infarction in Japan. This drug also reacts with two-electron oxidants like peroxynitrite to give predominantly 4-nitrosoedaravone but no one-electron oxidation products. It is believed that this plays a significant role in amelioration of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The drug was approved for treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in Japan and USA in 2015 and 2017, respectively. In this study, we examined the reaction of edaravone with another two-electron oxidant, hypochlorite anion (ClO). Edaravone reacted with ClO in 50% methanolic phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) solution containing typical two-electron reductants, such as glutathione, cysteine, methionine, and uric acid, as internal references. The concentration of edaravone decreased at a similar rate as each co-existing reference, indicating that it showed comparable reactivity toward ClO as those references. Furthermore, 4-Cl-edaravone and (E)-2-chloro-3-[(E)-phenyldiazenyl]-2-butenoic acid (CPB) were identified as primary and end products, respectively, and no one-electron oxidation products were detected. These results suggest that edaravone treatment can bring greater benefit against ClO-related injury such as inflammation, and 4-Cl-edaravone and CPB can be good biomarkers for ClO-induced oxidative stress.

    Download PDF (688K)
  • Yurie Mori, Shinji Oikawa, Shota Kurimoto, Yuki Kitamura, Saeko Tada-O ...
    Type: Original Article
    Article ID: 19-78
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: April 09, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    It is well-known that the cornu Ammonis 1 (CA1) sector of hippocampus is vulnerable for the ischemic insult, whereas the dentate gyrus (DG) is resistant. Here, to elucidate its underlying mechanism, alternations of protein oxidation and expression of DG in the monkey hippocampus after ischemia-reperfusion by the proteomic analysis were studied by comparing CA1 data. Oxidative damage to proteins such as protein carbonylation interrupt the protein function. Carbonyl modification of molecular chaperone, heat shock 70 kDa protein 1 (Hsp70.1) was increased remarkably in CA1, but slightly in DG. In addition, expression levels of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent protein deacetylase sirtuin-2 (SIRT2) was significantly increased in DG after ischemia, but decreased in CA1. Accordingly, it is likely that SIRT2 upregulation and negligible changes of carbonylation of Hsp70.1 exert its neuroprotective effect in DG. On the contrary, carbonylation level of dihydropyrimidinase related protein 2 (DRP-2) and l-lactate dehydrogenase B chain (LDHB) were slightly increased in CA1 as shown previously, but remarkably increased in DG after ischemia. It is considered that DRP-2 and LDHB are specific targets of oxidative stress by ischemia insult and high carbonylation levels of DRP-2 may play an important role in modulating ischemic neuronal death.

    Download PDF (738K)
  • Masaki Fujimoto, Tomoki Bo, Kumiko Yamamoto, Hironobu Yasui, Tohru Yam ...
    Type: Original Article
    Article ID: 19-80
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: April 09, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Mitotic catastrophe is a form of cell death linked to aberrant mitosis caused by improper or uncoordinated mitotic progression. Abnormal centrosome amplification and mitotic catastrophe occur simultaneously, and some cells with amplified centrosomes enter aberrant mitosis, but it is not clear whether abnormal centrosome amplification triggers mitotic catastrophe. Here, to investigate whether radiation-induced abnormal centrosome amplification is essential for induction of radiation-induced mitotic catastrophe, centrinone-B, a highly selective inhibitor of polo-like kinase 4, was utilized to inhibit centrosome amplification, since polo-like kinase 4 is an essential kinase in centrosome duplication. When human cervical tumor HeLa cells and murine mammary tumor EMT6 cells were irradiated with 2.5 Gy of X-rays, cells with morphological features of mitotic catastrophe and the number of cells having >2 centrosomes increased in both cell lines. Although centrinone-B significantly inhibited radiation-induced abnormal centrosome amplification in both cell lines, such treatment did not change cell growth and significantly enhanced mitotic catastrophe in HeLa cells exposed to X-rays. In contrast, inhibition of centrosome amplification reduced cell growth and mitotic catastrophe in EMT6 cells exposed to X-rays. These results indicated that the role of radiation-induced abnormal centrosome amplification in radiation-induced mitotic catastrophe changes, depending on the cell type.

    Download PDF (870K)
  • Tomoyoshi Tamura, Masaru Suzuki, Kei Hayashida, Yosuke Kobayashi, Joe ...
    Type: Original Article
    Article ID: 19-101
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: April 03, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION
    Supplementary material

    Oxidative stress plays a key role in the pathophysiology of post-cardiac arrest syndrome. Molecular hydrogen reduces oxidative stress and exerts anti-inflammatory effects in an animal model of cardiac arrest. However, its effect on human post-cardiac arrest syndrome is unclear. We consecutively enrolled five comatose post-cardiac arrest patients (three males; mean age, 65 ± 15 years; four cardiogenic, one septic cardiac arrest) and evaluated temporal changes in oxidative stress markers and cytokines with inhaled hydrogen. All patients were treated with target temperature management. Hydrogen gas inhalation (2% hydrogen with titrated oxygen) was initiated upon admission for 18 h. Blood hydrogen concentrations, plasma and urine oxidative stress markers (derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites, biological antioxidant potential, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, Nɛ-hexanoyl-lysine, lipid hydroperoxide), and cytokines (interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α) were measured before and 3, 9, 18, and 24 h after hydrogen gas inhalation. Arterial hydrogen concentration was measurable and it was equilibrated with inhaled hydrogen. Oxidative stress was reduced and cytokine levels were unchanged in cardiogenic patients, whereas oxidative stress was unchanged and cytokine levels were diminished in the septic patient. The effect of inhaled hydrogen on oxidative stress and cytokines in comatose post-cardiac arrest patients remains indefinite because of methodological weaknesses.

    Download PDF (528K)
  • Sunmin Park, Ting Zhang, Xuangao Wu, Jing Yi Qiu
    Type: Original Article
    Article ID: 19-87
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: March 20, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    The benefits of ketone production regimens remain controversial. Here, we hypothesized that the ketone-producing regimens modulated cognitive impairment, glucose metabolism, and inflammation while altering the gut microbiome. The hypothesis and the mechanism were explored in amyloid-β infused rats. Rats that received an amyloid-β(25–35) infusion into the hippocampus had either ketogenic diet (AD-KD), intermittent fasting (AD-IMF), 30 energy percent fat diet (AD-CON), or high carbohydrate (starch) diet (AD-CHO) for 8 weeks. AD-IMF and AD-CHO, but not AD-KD, lowered the hippocampal amyloid-β deposition compared to the AD-CON despite serum ketone concentrations being elevated in both AD-KD and AD-IMF. AD-IMF and AD-CHO, but not AD-KD, improved memory function in passive avoidance, Y maze, and water maze tests compared to the AD-CON. Hippocampal insulin signaling (pAkt→pGSK-3β) was potentiated and pTau was attenuated in AD-IMF and AD-CHO much more than AD-CON. AD-IMF and AD-CON had similar glucose tolerance results during OGTT, but AD-KD and AD-IMF exhibited glucose intolerance. AD-KD exacerbated gut dysbiosis by increasing Proteobacteria, and AD-CHO improved it by elevating Bacteriodetes. In conclusion, ketone production itself might not improve memory function, insulin resistance, neuroinflammation or the gut microbiome when induced by ketone-producing remedies. Intermittent fasting and a high carbohydrate diet containing high starch may be beneficial for people with dementia.

    Download PDF (720K)
  • Bowen Wu, Wusi Zeng, Wei Ouyang, Qiang Xu, Jian Chen, Biao Wang, Xipin ...
    Type: Original Article
    Article ID: 19-121
    Published: 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: March 06, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Osteosarcoma is a primary bone aggressive cancer, affecting adolescents worldwide. Quercetin (a natural polyphenolic compound) is a polyphenolic flavonoid compound found in a variety of plants. It has been demonstrated to exert cytostatic activity against a variety of human cancer, including the human osteosarcoma. However, its efficacy in the treatment of osteosarcoma and the underlying antitumor mechanism has not been fully elucidated yet. In this study, we exposed MG-63 cells to different concentrations of quercetin (50, 100 and 200 µM) for 24 h. Here, we show that quercetin increased autophagic flux in the MG-63 cells, as evidenced by the upregulation of LC3B-II/LC3B-I and downregulation of P62/SQSTM1. Moreover, the autophagy inhibitor Bafilomycin A1 or genetic blocking autophagy with ATG5 knockdown decreased quercetin-induced cell death, indicating quercetin triggered autophagic cell death in MG-63 cells. Specifically, quercetin increased NUPR1 expression and activated of NUPR1 reporter activity, which contributed to the expression of autophagy-related genes and subsequent initiated autophagic cell death in osteosarcoma cells. Importantly, the increased expression NUPR1 were tightly related to the disturbance of reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis, which could be prevented by inhibiting intracellular ROS with NAC. Finally, NAC also abolished quercetin-induced autophagic cell death in vivo. Taken together, these data demonstrate that quercetin induces osteosarcoma cell death via inducing excessive autophagy, which is mediated through the ROS-NUPR1 pathway. Quercetin application may be a promising and practical strategy for osteosarcoma treatment in clinical practice.

    Download PDF (1033K)
feedback
Top