JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF JAPAN
Print ISSN : 0021-9592
Volume 10 , Issue 3
Showing 1-16 articles out of 16 articles from the selected issue
  • HIROKATSU MASUOKA, YASUHIKO ARAI, AND SHOZABURO SAITO
    1977 Volume 10 Issue 3 Pages 171-175
    Published: June 20, 1977
    Released: March 30, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The perturbation theory in conjunction with the conformal solution theory was applied to the correlation of vapor-liquid equilibria of systems containing ammonia; hydrogen-ammonia, nitrogen-ammonia, argon-ammonia, methane-ammonia, and nitrogen-methane-ammonia. The Lennard-Jones potential, with temperature-dependent parameters which were determined from the P-V-T and related properties of pure substance, was used to represent the intermolecular potentials for both nonpolar and polar molecules.
    By comparing the calculated results with the experimental data, it was found that the perturbation theory is useful in correlating the vapor-liquid equilibria of binary and ternary mixtures containing ammonia.
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  • HIDEO NISHIUMI, SHOZABURO SAITO
    1977 Volume 10 Issue 3 Pages 176-180
    Published: June 20, 1977
    Released: March 30, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Based on the relation suggested by Hudson and McCoubrey, new mixing rules are proposed for the coefficients of the modified generalized BWR equation of state. The binary interaction parameter, mij, in the mixing rules is correlated in terms of the ratio of critical volumes of unlike species for each combination of a group of substances. The validity of the present correlation is ascertained by the prediction of vapor-liquid equilibria for 125 binary systems consisting of hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and hydrogen sulfide.
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  • HISAYOSHI MATSUYAMA, HAJIME NISHIMURA
    1977 Volume 10 Issue 3 Pages 181-187
    Published: June 20, 1977
    Released: March 30, 2006
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    Vapor-liquid equilibrium relationships in ternary systems can be classified according to the number and types of azeotropes in them. All combinations of azeotropes however cannot exist because of thermodynamic and topological constraints.
    Two necessary conditions for the existence of the combinations are presented in this paper. One is the thermodynamic condition expressed as the relation among boiling temperatures of the pure materials and azeotropes in the system. The other is the topological one given in terms of indices of singular points in the vector field composed of residue curves which represents topological properties of the vapor-liquid equilibrium relationship. By use of these conditions ternary systems are classified into 113 groups.
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  • RYUZO ITO, YUSHI HIRATA, TOKURO MIZUSHINA, SHINJI YANAGIMACHI
    1977 Volume 10 Issue 3 Pages 188-193
    Published: June 20, 1977
    Released: March 30, 2006
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    An electrochemical method was applied to measure the local wall shear stress in the transpired turbulent boundary layer.
    In the case of injection or suction it was determined by comparing the wall shear stresses obtained by a meter with those by the momentum balance that the wall shear stress meter cannot directly measure the real value at the permeable wall due to the impermeable region around the imbedded meter.
    A correction method to obtain the actual shear stress at the permeable wall from the measured one at the meter is derived from an assumption of an inner boundary layer developing over this impermeable region. The validity of this method has been confirmed by measuring the variation of wall shear stress over the impermeable wall, and also by comparing the corrected shear stresses with those obtained by the momentum balance.
    The friction factors calculated from the corrected shear stresses were in good agreement with those by Simpson and Baker, and with the analytical prediction by Rubesin in the case of injection. The simple film theory is also applicable to the estimation of the variation of friction factors in a small range of injection or suction rate (|2vw/Cf0u|<1).
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  • RYUZO ITO, YUSHI HIRATA, OSAMU KITA, SADAHIRO SENO, KAZUO OMODAKA, RYO ...
    1977 Volume 10 Issue 3 Pages 194-199
    Published: June 20, 1977
    Released: March 30, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    To investigate the Lagrangian behavior of turbulent eddies in fully turbulent pipe flow, two point space-time correlations were measured by the electrochemical method; s-s correlation between the wall shear stresses spaced along the axial direction, s-u correlation between the wall shear stress and the local axial velocity in the same cross section, and u-u correlation between the local axial velocities in the same cross section.
    The correlation for time lag, defined as the delay time at which the correlation function becomes maximum, has been obtained for each cross correlation.
    The axial distribution of the time lags in the s-s correlation demonstrates that the axial velocity of turbulent eddies near the wall is 0.455 times the average velocity but is not proportional to the friction velocity as reported by Py.
    A model on transmission of turbulent disturbance is proposed here upon which the transmission velocities in the radial direction have been obtained from the s-u and u-u correlations respectively. The transmission velocity from the s-u correlation is proportional to (y/R)0.2, which corresponds to the radial velocity of an inrushing eddy. On the other hand, the transmission velocity in the bulk region obtained from the u-u correlation decreases towards the center.
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  • HIROMASA KOMATSU
    1977 Volume 10 Issue 3 Pages 200-205
    Published: June 20, 1977
    Released: March 30, 2006
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    A new method for correcting liquid compositions by the relaxation method has been developed. This method consists of the normalization between liquid compositions calculated at n-th trial and these resulting from the material balance at the hypothetical steady state.
    It has been confirmed that calculated results by use of this correction method converge to the actual values given by experimental data and that changes of the system from the start-up to the final steady state is simulated.
    This method is not only useful for the reacting distillation problems, but also it may be useful in the absence of chemical reactions.
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  • TADATOSHI CHIBA, HARUO KOBAYASHI
    1977 Volume 10 Issue 3 Pages 206-210
    Published: June 20, 1977
    Released: March 30, 2006
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    Solid exchange between the bubble wake and the emulsion phase in a gas-fluidised bed was studied both experimentally and theoretically. Measurements were made on the tracer particle concentration profile produced after a single bubble passage in a two-dimensional bed, and the solid exchange coefficients were estimated with the results of simultaneous measurements on the shape, the size and the rising velocity of bubbles.
    A simple model for the exchange was developed on the basis of an assumption that the exchange rate is proportional to both wake volume fraction and solid flux into the front surface of the gas cloud. Experimental values of the exchange coefficient were then compared with those predicted by the model and a reasonable agreement was shown between them for a range of bubble diameters of 6 to 17 cm.
    The model was extended to the ordinary three-dimensional bed and the exchange coefficient was correlated with the axial dispersion coefficient according to van Deemter''s and our models.
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  • ASASHI KITAMOTO, MASAMI SHIMIZU, YOICHI TAKASHIMA
    1977 Volume 10 Issue 3 Pages 211-217
    Published: June 20, 1977
    Released: March 30, 2006
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    Advanced transport relations involving three column constants, Hσ, Kσc and Kσd are developed to describe the separation performance of a thermal diffusion column with continuous draw-off. These constants were related to some integral functions of velocity profile, temperature distribution, density of gas mixture and characteristic values of transport coefficients.
    The separation of binary gas mixture by this technique was so effective that three reasonable factors had to be introduced into the column constants in the theory. They are a circulation constant of natural convection, a definition of characteristic mean temperature and a definition of mean composition over the column.
    The separation performance and the column constants also varied with the distortion of velocity profile due to continuous draw-off from the top or the bottom of column. However, its effect was not large, compared with the other factors mentioned above.
    The theory presented here makes possible to estimate the separation performance of hot-wire type thermal diffusion column with high accuracy.
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  • MASAAKI TERAMOTO, TSUTOMU ITO, HIROSHI TERANISHI
    1977 Volume 10 Issue 3 Pages 218-223
    Published: June 20, 1977
    Released: March 30, 2006
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    The rates of ozonation of aliphatic aldehydes and monosubstituted benzaldehydes are measured in carbon tetrachloride solutions, and the reaction order and the rate constants are determined on the basis of the theory of gas absorption accompanied by chemical reactions. It is found that the reaction is first order with respect to both ozone and benzaldehyde, and also that the second order rate constants for n- and iso-butyraldehydes are much higher than those for the substituted benzaldehydes studied. The order of reactivity of substituted benzaldehydes is anisaldehyde> p-tolualdehyde> benzaldehyde> p- and m-chlorobenzaldehydes> p- and m-nitrobenzaldehydes. It is also found that the rate of ozonation of substituted benzaldehyde follows Hammett''s rule.
    Furthermore, the kinetics of liquid-phase autoxidation of benzaldehyde with ozone-oxygen mixture is studied, and the observed oxidation rates are found to be approximately consistent with those predicted on the assumption that the reaction of ozone with aldehyde is an initiation reaction of the autoxidation.
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  • SHIGETAKA FUJII, HIDEO KAMEYAMA, KUNIO YOSHIDA, DAIZO KUNII
    1977 Volume 10 Issue 3 Pages 224-228
    Published: June 20, 1977
    Released: March 30, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    At present, much thermal energy exhausted from industrial processes has been unrecoverably lost. In this paper a new method, a chemical heat pump is proposed for recovering such low-level energy by use of chemical reaction cycles. Through this method the low-level energy can be converted to higher and more useful energy. Thermodynamical study of this method and the practical example, Triangle Process 1, 2 and 3 are described.
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  • YOICHI NAGASE, SHIGENORI SAWADA
    1977 Volume 10 Issue 3 Pages 229-232
    Published: June 20, 1977
    Released: March 30, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Theories of drag applied to impeller blade and of hydrodynamic head of the discharge flow are developed on the basis of a flow model in the impeller region proposed previously. It is deduced that fluid near the impeller is sucked into and accelerated in not only the front region but also the wake region of the impeller blade, so that the drag coefficient is very large, up to five. Solving the drag theory and expression for the discharge flow rate simultaneously, an equation for the dynamic head of the discharge flow is deduced as a function of drag coefficient and discharge flow rate. The equation agrees well with experimental results and predicts that the dynamic head is almost similar in any impellers under baffled condition and very large Reynolds number. Experimental results of drag coefficient are a unique function of Reynolds number and are parallel with the results of Braginskii over wide range of Reynolds number from laminar to turbulent flow.
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  • SHINTARO FURUSAKI, TOSHINORI KOJIMA, TERUKATSU MIYAUCHI
    1977 Volume 10 Issue 3 Pages 233-238
    Published: June 20, 1977
    Released: March 30, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    An enzyme reactor is presented with a membrane located between the enzyme and substrate solutions. Pressure is applied so as to accelerate the mass transfer to each side of the membrane alternately. The rate of mass transfer for this pressure swing method is found to be expressed by the bulk flow caused by the pressure difference across the membrane. The experimental conversion of the decomposition of H2O2 by catalase agrees with the theoretical prediction. In supplying enzyme solution continuously, the residence time distribution becomes narrow by applying the cascade system. This is effective in increasing conversion and in conserving the amount of enzyme consumed.
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  • AKIRA MATSUDA, TSUYOSHI MUNAKATA, SHINDO SUMI, KOJI OKADA
    1977 Volume 10 Issue 3 Pages 239-241
    Published: June 20, 1977
    Released: March 30, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • MASANORI FUJITSU, MASANOBU HASATANI, SACHIO SUGIYAMA
    1977 Volume 10 Issue 3 Pages 242-244
    Published: June 20, 1977
    Released: March 30, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • TAKESHI KATAOKA, HIROYUKI YOSHIDA
    1977 Volume 10 Issue 3 Pages 245-247
    Published: June 20, 1977
    Released: March 30, 2006
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  • SHINTARO FURUSAKI, TERUKATSU MIYAUCHI
    1977 Volume 10 Issue 3 Pages 247-249
    Published: June 20, 1977
    Released: March 30, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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