JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF JAPAN
Print ISSN : 0021-9592
Volume 13 , Issue 6
Showing 1-15 articles out of 15 articles from the selected issue
  • MASAHIRO YORIZANE, YOSHIMORI MIYANO
    1980 Volume 13 Issue 6 Pages 433-438
    Published: December 20, 1980
    Released: April 03, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    For the purpose of applying the Barker-Henderson perturbation theory to industrial calculations, the second-order term is approximately expressed in a simplified form using the 18-6 potential. The P-V-T relations for argon are well correlated. The perturbation theory utilizing the proposed empirical second-order term has been applied to the calculation of P-V-T relations for more complex molecules using a modified three-parameter potential function. The third parameter is the depth parameter for the attractive region of the 18-6 potential.
    The potential parameters have been determined for a number of nonpolar and polar substances. The overall average deviation for calculated pressures corresponding to the critical temperatures is relatively small, about 3 %. The calculated vapor pressures are in good agreement with experimental values, with average deviations for calculated vapor pressures of less than 1 %.
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  • MASAYUKI TODA, HIROTAKA KONNO, SHOZABURO SAITO
    1980 Volume 13 Issue 6 Pages 439-444
    Published: December 20, 1980
    Released: April 03, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The limit-deposit velocity at which a solid deposit begins to build up in the bottom of a pipe is numerically analyzed on the basis of a two-dimensional flow model and a comparison is made with experimental results.
    The model explains well the fact that the limit-deposit velocity increases with an increase in the delivered concentration of solids, and after reaching a maximum at a certain concentration it decreases gradually at higher concentrations.
    It is shown that, at lower solid concentrations, the shear stress acting on the surface of the bed of particles is the dominant factor for transporting the solids, while at higher concentrations the drag force of fluid within the bed plays a very important role.
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  • HIROMOTO USUI, KENJI TSURUTA
    1980 Volume 13 Issue 6 Pages 445-450
    Published: December 20, 1980
    Released: April 03, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    An analysis is presented of fully developed turbulent flow in an eccentric annulus. An integral transformation technique (Kirchhoff transformation) is applied to eccentric annuli in a wide range of eccentricity and radius ratio. Velocity distributions, wall shear stress distributions and friction factors are calculated and compared with the literature. Although the analysis cannot predict the secondary flow in an eccentric annulus, the calculated results show good agreement with the experimental results in the literature.
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  • MOMINUDDIN CHOWDHURY, TAKESHI ISHIKAWA, MITSUHO HIRATA
    1980 Volume 13 Issue 6 Pages 450-458
    Published: December 20, 1980
    Released: April 03, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This rigorous and effective new simulation method is developed on the concept of a simple, stable algorithm so as to ensure fast and reliable convergence for a wide range of absorption problems. The main characteristic of this method lies in the technique of solving only two objective functions for stoichiometric and enthalpy balance equations by a matrix equation requiring the inversion, only once per problem, of a large matrix consisting of the derivatives of these functions with respect to two independent variables: temperature and vapor rate. The stability of this method is demonstrated here by its capability of solving absorption problems involving both wideand narrow-boiling mixtures, a stripper, an absorber with intermediate feed and cooling, reboiled absorber, and particularly, multicomponent absorption problems with non-ideal systems. The solutions of some of these problems predicted by this method are compared with the available results and are found to be in good agreement.
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  • MASAAKI TERAMOTO, KIMIKAZU KIDO, HIROSHI TERANISHI
    1980 Volume 13 Issue 6 Pages 458-462
    Published: December 20, 1980
    Released: April 03, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Absorption of dilute SO2 in water, aqueous solutions of H2SO4, NaHSO3 and Fe(II)-edta was theoretically and experimentally investigated. It was found that the dissociation of SO2 in solutions (SO2+H2OHSO-3+H+) has a remarkable effect on its absorption rate. The presence of H2SO4 or NaHSO3 prevents the dissociation of SO2, resulting in lower absorption rate than that in pure water. The absorption rate in Fe(II)-edta solution was found to be faster than that into water because of the buffer capacity of Fe(II)-edta solution. The experimental results are satisfactorily explained by the theory of gas absorption accompanied by instantaneous reversible reactions.
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  • BYUNG RIN CHO, MOTOYUKI SUZUKI
    1980 Volume 13 Issue 6 Pages 463-467
    Published: December 20, 1980
    Released: April 03, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Feasibility of production of activated carbon from sludge of CGP (chemi-ground pulp) wastewater was studied by means of laboratory-scale experiments.
    In this work, alum (Al2(SO4)3⋅18H2O) was used as coagulating agent. The main carbonizing and activating agent used was ZnCl2, and K2S was also used for comparison. The quality of carbons obtained was examined with reference to yield, specific surface area, pore volume and pore size distribution.
    The influence of activation conditions, such as weight ratio of sludge to ZnCl2, activation temperature and drying time, to the development of pore structure is discussed.
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  • HIROAKI MASUDA, HIDETO YOSHIDA, KOICHI IINOYA
    1980 Volume 13 Issue 6 Pages 467-472
    Published: December 20, 1980
    Released: April 03, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Isokinetic dust-sampling does not guarantee a true concentration measurement of particles when the particles and the sampling probe are electrified. The measured concentration is lower than the true concentration when both the particles and the probe are electrified to the same polarity. If the polarities of their electrostatic charges are opposite, the measured concentration is higher than the true concentration. The effect becomes predominant as the particle inertia becomes smaller.
    The sampling error takes a maximum in a certain range of particle diameter depending on the sampling conditions. Further, the smaller the probe, the larger the electrostatic effects. The effect of the induced force is, however, very weak and is negligible in actual cases. The results obtained in this paper give a better understanding of experimental results left unexplained.
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  • MOMPEI SHIRATO, TSUTOMU ARAGAKI, Em IRITANI, TORU FUNAHASHI
    1980 Volume 13 Issue 6 Pages 473-478
    Published: December 20, 1980
    Released: April 03, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Constant rate and variable pressure-variable rate filtration operations, which may be more frequently encountered in industrial filtrations involving centrifugal pumps, are investigated by using so-called power-law non-Newtonian fluids. Filtration pressure was manually controlled so that constant rate or variable pressure-variable rate filtration experiments were executed. Slurries of Hyflo Super-Cel in sodium polyacrylate-deionized water solutions were filtered, the slurry concentration s being 0.18. The flow behavior index N of the filtrate was about 0.3. Based upon the theories for constant pressure filtration of power-law non-Newtonian fluids presented in the previous paper, methods are presented for analyzing constant rate and variable pressure-variable rate filtration operations. The methods can be used for evaluating not only the overall filtration characteristics of the average specific resistance γav for filtration of power-law fluids and the ratio m of wetto-dry cake mass but also the detailed internal structures of the filter cake during filtration operations. It is also shown that good agreement exists between theories and experiments.
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  • NORIHIRO TAKAMA, TAKAFUMI KURIYAMA, KATSUO SHIROKO, TOMIO UMEDA
    1980 Volume 13 Issue 6 Pages 478-483
    Published: December 20, 1980
    Released: April 03, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This paper presents a practical planning method for optimal water allocation in a total system consisting of water-using and water-treating process units. The method uses a heuristic rule and a linear programming algorithm. The heuristic rule regarding a sequence of process units is used to simplify an integrated system structure. The algorithm uses repeatedly a linear programming technique to solve a linearized problem for a set of constant values of some parameters. By using the combination of these two approaches, a total system structure is determined so as to minimize the total cost associated with fresh water and water treatment subject to constraints derived from material balances and interrelationships among process units. The method is illustrated by its application to an optimal water allocation problem in a petroleum refinery.
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  • HIROSHI OOSHIMA, YOSHIO HARANO
    1980 Volume 13 Issue 6 Pages 484-489
    Published: December 20, 1980
    Released: April 03, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Taking the hydrolysis of sucrose by invertase as an example, optimal temperature operation (OTO) for the batchwise immobilized enzymatic reaction accompanied by first-order enzyme deactivation was studied. From a comparison with isothermal operation (ITO), the following results were obtained.
    1) Both in OTO and in ITO, ξ (=ratio of the activation energy of deactivation to that of reaction) is the most important parameter for operational design concerning the effective use of immobilized enzyme. The larger the value of ξ, the more the enzyme can be utilized repeatedly to result in higher conversion.
    2) It was found theoretically and experimentally that OTO gives higher final conversion, Xf, at given βf (final residual enzymatic activity) and tf (total reaction time) than ITO.
    3) In OTO, a parameter βf, exp, the advisable minimum enzymatic activity at the final stage of the operation, is a useful measure for the design of optimal temperature operation.
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  • AKIO NISHIWAKI, TADASHI SHINKAWA, YASUO KATO
    1980 Volume 13 Issue 6 Pages 490-492
    Published: December 20, 1980
    Released: April 03, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • KANICHI SUZUKI, ASAO FUJIGAMI, RYOHEI YAMAZAKI, GENJI JIMBO
    1980 Volume 13 Issue 6 Pages 493-495
    Published: December 20, 1980
    Released: April 03, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • KANICHI SUZUKI, ASAO FUJIGAMI, RYOHEI YAMAZAKI, GENJI JIMBO
    1980 Volume 13 Issue 6 Pages 495-498
    Published: December 20, 1980
    Released: April 03, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • IKUHO YAMADA, SHIGEHIKO SUDA, SETSURO HIRAOKA
    1980 Volume 13 Issue 6 Pages 498-500
    Published: December 20, 1980
    Released: April 03, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • YASUSHI TAKEUCHI, EIJI FURUYA
    1980 Volume 13 Issue 6 Pages 500-503
    Published: December 20, 1980
    Released: April 03, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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