JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF JAPAN
Print ISSN : 0021-9592
Volume 14 , Issue 4
Showing 1-15 articles out of 15 articles from the selected issue
  • HIDEO NISHIUMI, DONALD B. ROBINSON
    1981 Volume 14 Issue 4 Pages 259-266
    Published: August 20, 1981
    Released: April 03, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A fourth parameter, ψE, obtained from the second virial coefficients at low reduced temperatures, is proposed to correlate the compressibility factor Z of polar substances. The value is expressed in terms of ψE and the acentric factor ω as:
    Z=Z(0)+ωZ(1)E(Z(2)+ωZ(3))
    Tables of Z(0) through Z(3) are presented over the range of reduced temperatures from 0.4 to 4.0 and of reduced pressures from 0.03 to 40.0, using an approximate BWR equation of state. For fifteen polar substances, the overall average absolute deviations in predicted compressibility factor for the gaseous and liquid regions are 1.3 and 3.3%, respectively. The parameter can be roughly related to dipole moments, whereas no strong correlations between ψ E and the Stockmayer potential model parameter is observed.
    Download PDF (619K)
  • TATSUO NISHIMURA, YUJI KAWAMURA
    1981 Volume 14 Issue 4 Pages 267-272
    Published: August 20, 1981
    Released: April 03, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The flow pattern across tube banks in the low Reynolds number region was obtained by means of the finite element method. The variation of flow pattern with pitch ratio and arrangement of tube banks was deduced from the local surface vorticity distribution. The frictional drag coefficient for the first row in a tube bank was almost identical with the case of a single row of cylinders, regardless of arrangement, and was dominated by the flow where minimum spacing exists between adjacent cylinders in the direction perpendicular to the flow. The frictional drag coefficient for the inner row of the staggered configuration was higher than that for the first row due to the impingement of jet flow formed at the preceding row, while that for the inner row of the in-line configuration was lower than that for the first row due to the vortex formed at the gap between adjacent cylinders in the flow direction. This tendency depended on Reynolds number and pitch ratio.
    Download PDF (441K)
  • HIROTOSHI TANIMOTO, SHIGEO CHIBA, TADATOSHI CHIBA, HARUO KOBAYASHI
    1981 Volume 14 Issue 4 Pages 273-276
    Published: August 20, 1981
    Released: April 03, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Drift lines produced after a single bubble passage were measured in a 0.19 m i.d. three-dimensional gas-fluidised bed of 0.163 mm glass beads which contains tiny but recognizable aggregates of jetsam particles or bulk particle tracers. Lateral distributions of the descending distance of jetsam relative to the bulk particles were obtained from the difference between the jetsam and the bulk drift lines, and were then reduced to the average descending distance over the bubble cross-sectional area. The segregation rate constants were calculated for four kinds of jetsam, fairly larger or denser than the bulk particles, and were applied to the estimation of jetsam concentration profiles based on an existing mathematical model. The results of comparison of the estimated concentration profiles with those observed by other investigators were quite satisfactory, indicating that the experimental results here obtained are reliable.
    Download PDF (318K)
  • YUSHI HIRATA, RYUZO ITO
    1981 Volume 14 Issue 4 Pages 277-281
    Published: August 20, 1981
    Released: April 03, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    An expression of velocity distribution of Stevenson''s type is proposed for fully developed porous tube flow, on the basis of which the friction factor and the pressure gradient are analytically predicted. The prediction is in good agreement with the experimental results, but its applicability is restricted to a flow at mw<7.3 × 10-3.
    Download PDF (334K)
  • TETSUJIRO MITANI, YOICHI TAKASHIMA
    1981 Volume 14 Issue 4 Pages 282-288
    Published: August 20, 1981
    Released: April 03, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    We have proposed several methods of removing desublimated matter from the cooling surface of a cold trap for the purposes of saving excess heat energy as well as of establishing a continuous process of desublimation. One of the proposals is that an additional action such as thermal stress will make it possible to scrape off the desublimated matter completely by imposing a moderate mechanical force.
    To confirm the feasibility of this proposal, experimental studies on the scraping-off of the desublimated pure materials water, benzene, p-xylene and cyclohexane have been made by means of an annular-tube cold trap with a Nichrome wire buried in the cooling tube. Several effects of apparent density, sticking surface temperature, use of a thin polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon) coating layer and thermal stress on the sticking of desublimated matter to the cooling surface have been studied, so that a method for smoothly scraping off the desublimated matter can be found. The experimental results show that the presence of a thin Teflon coating layer and of a Nichrome heater are very useful for easily and completely scraping off the desublimated matter. Also, the stripping behavior is much dependent upon the property of the sticking crystals.
    Download PDF (840K)
  • TOSHIHIKO IMATO, HOSEI OGAWA, SHIGEHARU MOROOKA, YASUO KATO
    1981 Volume 14 Issue 4 Pages 289-295
    Published: August 20, 1981
    Released: April 03, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Permeation rate and transfer mechanism of copper(II) through a supported liquid membrane containing LIX65N as a mobile carrier were studied. The experiment was carried out under the condition that the rate-determining step of the dialysis was the diffusion in the membrane.
    The binary diffusivities of the oxime and the copper-oxime complex for solute-solvent system and apparent diffusivity of copper in the supported liquid membrane were measured. The apparent diffusivity of copper was approximately proportional to the -1.0 power of the liquid membrane solution viscosity. The copper flux was constant in the range of pH>3 in the feed solution, but decreased with decreasing pH in the range of pH<3. Copper concentration in the feed solution hardly influenced the copper flux in the range of 10-3-10-1 mol-dm-3. The copper flux was proportional to the 1st power of the oxime concentration in the liquid membrane when pH of the feed solution was 4.47, but the value of the power of the oxime concentration increased with decreasing value of pH of the feed solution. The concentration profile of the copper-oxime complex in a stack of the supported liquid membrane was approximately in agreement with the theory.
    Download PDF (540K)
  • MASAKUNI MATSUOKA, HIDEKAZU KOMIYA
    1981 Volume 14 Issue 4 Pages 295-301
    Published: August 20, 1981
    Released: April 03, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A method to estimate the composition of solid condensate from a binary vapor in fractional sublimation accompanied by an entrainer gas is derived, including an overall coefficient for condensation of the individual components. The coefficient was empirically correlated with gas flow rates, surface temperatures of condenser, and condenser dimensions. Good agreement between the estimated and observed compositions of the condensates was obtained for two eutectic-forming organic mixtures and one solid solution organic mixture.
    Download PDF (562K)
  • HIROO NIIYAMA, KIMIAKI SASAMOTO, SHIZUO YOSHIDA, ETSURO ECHIGOYA
    1981 Volume 14 Issue 4 Pages 301-306
    Published: August 20, 1981
    Released: April 03, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Transient response technique was applied to elucidate the roles of oxygen in NO-NH3-O2 reaction system at low concentrations of NO and NH3 (ca. 500 ppm). Reaction hardly takes place in the absence of oxygen. Analyses of transient response curves of such reaction system indicated that the reaction involves consumption of surface oxygen. High activity of CuSO4-Active Carbon catalyst is due to its high affinity for oxygen.
    Download PDF (497K)
  • HIROYUKI HATANO, MASARU ISHIDA
    1981 Volume 14 Issue 4 Pages 306-311
    Published: August 20, 1981
    Released: April 03, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Entrainment of solid particles (Glass beads, dp=300-600 μm, Umf=14 cm/s) from a gassolid fluidized bed was studied experimentally by following the rise of bubbles and measuring the velocity of particles leaving the bed surface. Photographs of the freeboard were taken continually to follow the particle movement in it.
    Based on analysis of these data, it was found that the particles in the wake for an isolated bubble scarcely contributed to entrainment but that bubble coalescence near the bed surface was the key factor in entrainment. Bubble bursting behavior was classified into four patterns:
    (I) Isolated bubble
    (II) Successively rising bubbles
    (III) Coalescent bubble
    (IV) Successively coalescent bubbles
    For the first two groups, the particle velocity leaving the bed surface was usually less than the bubble rising velocity and for the latter two, it exceeded the bubble rising velocity.
    Download PDF (543K)
  • DONG HYUN KIM, YOUNG GUL KIM
    1981 Volume 14 Issue 4 Pages 311-317
    Published: August 20, 1981
    Released: April 03, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Up to four multiple steady states were experimentally observed by hydrogenating cyclohexene on a Pt/Al2O3 catalyst having bimodal distribution. The catalyst, in the form of 3/16-in. by 3/16-in. cylindrical pellet containing 5.6 wt% platinum on γ-alumina support, was imbedded in a bed of inert α-alumina pellets of similar size to isolate the effect of individual catalyst pellet, and was surrounded by reacting mixture containing saturated cyclohexene vapor. The reaction was run at four different temperatures, i.e. 15, 22, 30 and 40°C, and as a means of changing reaction condition at a given reaction temperature the hydrogen partial pressure was varied. From experimental evidence, two of these multiple steady states were interpreted as the rates in vaporfilled and liquid-filled catalyst pores and the other two steady states as those of pores with different degrees of liquid filling. The transition of phase was apparent from sharp change in observed reaction rate.
    Download PDF (593K)
  • DONG HYUN KIM, YOUNG GUL KIM
    1981 Volume 14 Issue 4 Pages 318-322
    Published: August 20, 1981
    Released: April 03, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    From numerical calculations, two of the four multiple steady states (branches A and C) obtained on a biporous Pt/AI2O3 catalyst surrounded by reacting mixture containing saturated vapor of cyclohexene reported in the preceding paper6) can be attributed to the behavior of the catalyst filled with vapor mixture and condensed liquid mixture in its micropores. Stability analysis based on heat generation and heat removal curves without considering phase change in the catalyst interior showed only a single steady state, i.e. the rate of vapor-filled catalyst, while incorporating the effect of phase change on the heat generation curve yielded two steady states which gave good agreement with those of experiments within experimental error.
    Download PDF (432K)
  • MASAFUMI KURIYAMA, MASAKATSU OHTA, KINYA YANAGAWA, KUNIO ARAI, SHOZABU ...
    1981 Volume 14 Issue 4 Pages 323-330
    Published: August 20, 1981
    Released: April 03, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Temperature distributions of fluid in an agitated tank equipped with a helical ribbon impeller are visualized by means of liquid crystal particles and the relation between temperature distribution and circulation flow is observed. It is concluded that non-uniformities in temperature in an agitated tank should not be neglected in the laminar flow region and that, in this case, a flow model realistic enough to represent the actual flow behavior is necessary. A flow model is developed and applied in order to analyze the steady-state heat transfer system. The introduction of this flow model has been found very effective in expressing the thermal mixing process in an agitated tank with a helical ribbon impeller.
    Download PDF (974K)
  • MASAHITO TAYA, KAZUHISA HONMA, KUNIO OHMIYA, TAKESHI KOBAYASHI, SHOICH ...
    1981 Volume 14 Issue 4 Pages 330-335
    Published: August 20, 1981
    Released: April 03, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The effects of chemical pretreatment on cellulose digestion by a cellulolytic anaerobe, Ruminococcus albus, were examined. Pretreatment with H3PO4 was the most effective for digestion of crystalline cellulose by R. albus of the four pretreatment methods investigated. The best condition for pretreatment of Avicel with H3PO4 was as follows; H3PO4 concentration: 85-100 (v/v)%; treatment time: over 5 min; treatment temperature: 0°C at 85 (v/v)% H3PO4 or 0-60°C at 95 (v/v)% H3PO4; cellulose concentration: 1-3 (w/w)%. Treatment efficiencies did not decrease after five repeated uses of H3PO4. For effective digestion of newspaper or rice straw, delignification was essential in addition to swelling with H3PO4. For newspaper and rice straw which were cryomilled, delignified and swollen with H3PO4, specific cellulose digestion rates by R. albus were 0.081 and 0.099 g cellulose/g dry cells/hr, respectively.
    Download PDF (520K)
  • KAZUO KONDO, SHIGEO HIRAYAMA, FUMIYUKI NAKASHIO
    1981 Volume 14 Issue 4 Pages 336-337
    Published: August 20, 1981
    Released: April 03, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (163K)
  • TSUTAO OTAKE, SETSUJI TONE, KOUICHI SHINOHARA
    1981 Volume 14 Issue 4 Pages 338-340
    Published: August 20, 1981
    Released: April 03, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (187K)
feedback
Top