JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF JAPAN
Print ISSN : 0021-9592
Volume 15 , Issue 6
Showing 1-14 articles out of 14 articles from the selected issue
  • TAKAO TSUKADA, MITSUNORI HOZAWA, NOBUYUKI IMAISHI, KATSUHIKO FUJIKAWA
    1982 Volume 15 Issue 6 Pages 421-426
    Published: December 20, 1982
    Released: April 04, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Effect of inclination angle β on static drop formation into air from a hole in an inclined flat plate was studied experimentally and theoretically. In the experiments, water was used as the liquid and Teflon and acrylic resin were used as the solid.
    In the case of fixed contact line, the experimental relation between maximum drop volume Vmax and β agrees well with the theoretical prediction by analysis of the variational problem in which the total potential energy of the system is minimized. An approximated equation for Vmax and an experimental equation for residual drop volume Vmin are presented.
    In the case of free contact line, drop formation is affected both by the advancing contact angle and by the receding contact angle. The drop formation course can be simulated roughly by assuming a circular contact line, and the experimental relations between Vmax and β are explained by the theory.
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  • MINORU KUMAGAI, KAZUO ENDOH
    1982 Volume 15 Issue 6 Pages 427-433
    Published: December 20, 1982
    Released: April 04, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The effects of the kinematic viscosity and the surface tension of aqueous solution on the gas entrainment rate of an impinging liquid jet were studied experimentally, using a straight cylindrical nozzle with a nozzle cap.
    The three critical jet velocities at three transition points, respectively, on the gas entrainment curve increase with an increase of kinematic viscosity of the liquid. The gas entrainment rate of an impinging liquid jet tends to decrease in the initial entrainment region, while it tends to increase in the low jet velocity region, as kinematic viscosity increases. In the high jet velocity region, the effect of kinematic viscosity on gas entrainment rate is insignificant. The effect of the surface tension of the liquid on the gas entrainment rate and the three transition points is negligible.
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  • TAHEI TOMIDA, FUMIO TABUCHI, TATSUYA OKAZAKI
    1982 Volume 15 Issue 6 Pages 434-439
    Published: December 20, 1982
    Released: April 04, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The axial dispersion coefficient of the liquid phase, E, and liquid holdup, RL, in upward two-phase flow of gas-liquid mixtures were measured by the moments analysis of response curves for an arbitrary imperfect pulsing of tracer (aqueous NaCl solution). Experiments were carried out in the annular and froth flow regions using vertical tubes of 9 mm, 16 mm and 28 mm inside diameter, and 8 m length. The effects of the velocities of gas and liquid, the tube diameter and the liquid viscosity on E and RL, were examined. The values of RL were represented well with the correlations of Yagi et al. and Hughmark and Pressburg. As to the axial dispersion coefficient, an empirical correlation was proposed using the parameter obtained from a modification of Taylor''s analysis.
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  • SHIGERU MATSUMOTO, HIROJI SATO, MUTSUMI SUZUKI, SIRO MAEDA
    1982 Volume 15 Issue 6 Pages 440-445
    Published: December 20, 1982
    Released: April 04, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The choking velocity, at which the substantial transport of solids becomes impossible in a pneumatic conveying system, is predicted on the basis of the dynamic stability analysis of the whole conveying system including characteristics of blower and pipelines as well as gas-solid suspension. The system is expressed by a lumped parameter approximation. The results are in good agreement with experimental ones obtained by using a 20 mm-I.D., 5.6 m-long vertical glass tube with three sizes of glass beads, within an error of 10%.
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  • YUSHI HIRATA, SATOSHI KOMATSU, RYUZO ITO
    1982 Volume 15 Issue 6 Pages 445-451
    Published: December 20, 1982
    Released: April 04, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Flow development in a porous tube with mass injection or suction was experimentally studied under the conditions of entrance Reynolds number of 2.1 × 104 and entrance injection or suction ratio from -4.97×10-3 to 2.77 ×lO-3. From the variations of friction factor, axial velocity component, radial velocity component and local shear stress in the flow direction, it was revealed that the flow at x/D>13 was fully affected up to the tube center by mass injection or suction, being well approximated as a self-similar flow. In addition, a simple expression of defect law is proposed for the velocity distribution in the core region. It is applicable to flows at Re>1.5× 104, including the entrance region.
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  • YUSHI HIRATA, RYUZO ITO
    1982 Volume 15 Issue 6 Pages 452-458
    Published: December 20, 1982
    Released: April 04, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Effects of mass injection or suction on mixing length was investigated for the case where a hydrodynamically fully developed impermeable tube flow entered a porous tube. Mixing length near the wall is increased by injection and decreased by suction, being well correlated with a dimensionless distance y++ based on the local friction velocity. The mixing length in the core region is decreased by injection and increased by suction. The mixing length theory was extended so as to express the upstream effect on momentum exchange by introducing a memory function with a parameter of longitudinal traveling distance LMX of fluid lump. The relation LMX=8R was obtained by applying the extended theory to the mixing length variation in the core region.
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  • MASAAKI TERAMOTO, HITOSHI ISHIBASHI
    1982 Volume 15 Issue 6 Pages 458-462
    Published: December 20, 1982
    Released: April 04, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Experiments on simultaneous absorption of H2S and NH3 in water, absorption of H2S in aqueous solutions of NH3 with simultaneous desorption of NH3, and simultaneous desorption of H2S and NH3 from aqueous solutions of NH3 and NH4HS were carried out using a continuous stirred-cell absorber. Absorption and desorption rates were analyzed on the basis of a theory of diffusion with instantaneous reversible chemical reaction. It was confirmed that the theory could be commonly applied to each case in the experiments, and gives a satisfactory interpretation of the effects of experimental conditions on the absorption as well as the desorption rate.
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  • SHIN-ICHI NAKAO, SATOSHI YUMOTO, SHOJI KIMURA
    1982 Volume 15 Issue 6 Pages 463-468
    Published: December 20, 1982
    Released: April 04, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Rejection characteristics of macromolecular gel layer for low-molecular weight solutes were studied by ultrafiltration using o¥ albumin and polyvinyl alcohol, which formed a gel layer, and vitamin B12, raffinose and glucose, which were rejected by the gel layer. The bilayer membrane model and the Jagur-Grodzinski and Kedem equations were found effective in analyzing the rejection ability of the gel layer, which was defined by two parameters, σg and Pg. These parameters could be determined by the curve-fitting method. Furthermore, σg and Pg were analyzed by use of the steric hindrance-pore model, and the structure of the gel layer was estimated. It became clear from the experimental results that compaction of the gel layer by mechanical pressure occurred and affected the rejection ability. This effect can be calculated by taking into the pressure dependencies of thickness and pore radius of gel layer.
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  • SHINJI OGAWA, MASAO KOBAYASHI, SETSUJI TONE, TSUTAO OTAKE
    1982 Volume 15 Issue 6 Pages 469-474
    Published: December 20, 1982
    Released: April 04, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The liquid-phase mixing pattern and dispersion coefficients were studied by the tracer concentration distribution at steady state and the impulse response method for the gas-liquid jet reactor with liquid jet ejector.
    The longitudinal liquid-phase mixing pattern was quite different between the spouting section and the calm section. In the spouting section, which was the lower region in the column, the liquid phase was regarded as almost completely mixed flow. By contrast, in the calm section, which was the upper region, the value of the dispersion coefficient was fairly smaller than that in bubble columns and back-mixing of the liquid phase was suppressed.
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  • HIROKAZU NISHITANI, EIICHI KUNUGITA, LIANG T. FAN
    1982 Volume 15 Issue 6 Pages 475-480
    Published: December 20, 1982
    Released: April 04, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The possibility of improving the match between an energy source and an energy sink in an energy exchange system has been investigated to maximize both energy conservation and economic benefit. Trade-off curves between the total dissipation of available energy (exergy) and the total area of heat exchangers in the system have been obtained under three situations. In the first problem it is assumed that any heat source, of whatever quality and quantity, can be used for heat exchange. In the second problem available heat sources are specified and then the network of heat exchangers is synthesized. In the last problem, sizing of each heat exchanger is considered under the specified heat sources and heat exchanger network. Comparison of these trade-off curves suggests that an appropriate heat source or sources should be chosen by solving the heat source selection problem before the synthesis or design of a heat exchange system is carried out.
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  • TERUYUKI NAGAMUNE, ISAO ENDO, ICHIRO INOUE
    1982 Volume 15 Issue 6 Pages 481-486
    Published: December 20, 1982
    Released: April 04, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    By using a brewer''s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) as a test organism, the authors investigated the optimal operation of the seed culture process on the basis of physiological activities such as the specific rate of substrate consumption and that of cellular growth. Here, we adopted cell mass production per unit amount of substrate per unit process time for the whole seed culture process as an objective function for this optimization in order to conserve raw material as well as to raise the rate of operation of seed fermentors. Expression of the cell mass yield and the fermentation time as functions of both the initial cell mass concentration and the propagation ratio of one seed culture fermentor made the optimization procedure simple and provided a sound explanation for the optimum strategies. A new view was obtained about the optimal operation of the seed culture process.
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  • KYOICHI SAITO, SHINTARO FURUSAKI, TOSHINORI KOJIMA
    1982 Volume 15 Issue 6 Pages 487-489
    Published: December 20, 1982
    Released: April 04, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • EIICHI ABE, HIDEHARU HIROSUE
    1982 Volume 15 Issue 6 Pages 490-493
    Published: December 20, 1982
    Released: April 04, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • MICHIHARU TOH, YASUHIRO MURAKAMI
    1982 Volume 15 Issue 6 Pages 493-495
    Published: December 20, 1982
    Released: April 04, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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