JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF JAPAN
Print ISSN : 0021-9592
Volume 17 , Issue 5
Showing 1-19 articles out of 19 articles from the selected issue
  • Kozo KOIDE, AKIHIRO TAKAZAWA, MASAO KOMURA, HIDETOSHI MATSUNAGA
    1984 Volume 17 Issue 5 Pages 459-466
    Published: October 20, 1984
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The effects of column dimensions, gas velocity and the properties of liquid and solid particles on the gas holdup εG and the volumetric liquid-phase mass transfer coefficient kLa in the solid-suspended bubble column of liquid-solid batch operation were studied experimentally. The presence of suspended solid particles in the bubble column reduces values of εG and kLa, and their reduction by an addition of solid particles to the column is high in the transition regime and low in the heterogeneous flow regime. Based on these observations, empirical equations for εG in transition flow and in heterogeneous flow, and an empirical equation for kLa a applicable to the above two flow regimes are proposed.
    Download PDF (589K)
  • TATSUO NISHIMURA, YOSHIJI OHORI, YUJI KAWAMURA
    1984 Volume 17 Issue 5 Pages 466-471
    Published: October 20, 1984
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Flow characteristics in a channel with a symmetric wavy wall were investigated by calculations and experiments. The channel used has a geometry similar to that of the Oxford membrane blood oxygenator. The flow regime covered ranged from laminar to turbulent flow.
    The variation of pressure drop and wall shear stress with the Reynolds number was elucidated by the behavior of the circulated vortex formed at the diverging cross section of the channel.
    Download PDF (459K)
  • WATARU EGUCHI, MAKOTO HARADA, MOTONARI ADACHI, MASATAKA TANIGAKI, KAZU ...
    1984 Volume 17 Issue 5 Pages 472-477
    Published: October 20, 1984
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A new device, called the position-scanning spectrophotometer, which measures the concentration profiles of lightabsorbing solute species in the course of an unsteady multicomponent diffusion process, is described. Illustrative examples of application of this spectrophotometer to the coupled ternary diffusion process in the water-NiCl2-CoCl2 system and to diffusion-controlled mass transfer with an irreversible instantaneous chemical reaction between nitroso-R salt and copper sulfate are shown. These examples indicate that this spectrophotometer is a powerful means of studying complex diffusional processes in liquid phase.
    Download PDF (516K)
  • TETSUJI CHOHJI, TATSURO SAWADA, YOSHITOSHI NAKAMURA, SIGERU KUNO
    1984 Volume 17 Issue 5 Pages 478-485
    Published: October 20, 1984
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The mathematical model for diauxic growth of microorganisms in the presence of two substrates, such as glucose and maltose, was proposed, being constructed in due consideration of catabolite repression and enzyme induction. In the model, it was assumed that the first substrate is metabolized by a constitutively synthesized enzyme system, while the second substrate is utilized by an inducibly synthesized enzyme. The synthesis of the inducible enzyme is dually controlled by catabolite repression, which is caused by the first substrate, and induction which is triggered by the second substrate as an inducer. The extent of catabolite repression was expressed as the inhibition of promoter activity of inducible gene. The promotor of inducible gene was assumed to be activated by a cofactor, the synthesis of which is inhibited by the first substrate. The extent of induction was expressed as the activity of the operator, which is activated by the second substrate. The equations introduced from the model were applied to experiments carried out with a batch culture, with glucose and maltose as carbon sources. The calculated values were in satisfactory agreement with the experimental data, especially in the estimation of lag time between the first log phase state and the second one.
    Download PDF (622K)
  • ATSUSHI IKARI, YASUO HATATE, SEIICHI SAKAUE, YUKINORI KUBOTA
    1984 Volume 17 Issue 5 Pages 486-490
    Published: October 20, 1984
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    To clarify the behavior of a trace component during distillation under reduced pressure, the vapor-liquid equilibrium ratio and the plate efficiency of the trace component are needed.
    Vapor-liquid equilibria of aqueous ethanol solution containing about 0.05 wt % furfural (trace component) were measured at 25.3 kPa and 12.7 kPa by use of an Othmer-type still. The equilibrium ratio of furfural varys only slightly with the reduction of pressure.
    Distillation experiments were carried out by use of an Oldershow-type column at atmospheric pressure, 25.3 kPa and 12.7 kPa. A method for calculating the plate efficiency from the concentrations of distillate and bottoms was derived. The calculated results show that the Murphree vapor efficiency is little affected by pressure in the range of 12.7 kPa to atmospheric pressure.
    By reducing the pressures, the bubble point of the system decreases remarkably, but the change of behavior of a trace component in distillation becomes quite small.
    Download PDF (362K)
  • HIROYUKI HATANO, TAKASHI OKUMA, MASARU ISHIDA
    1984 Volume 17 Issue 5 Pages 491-497
    Published: October 20, 1984
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A bubble eruption model in which the effect of bubble coalescence near the bed surface on particle ejection from a gas-solid fluidized bed is proposed. It is a statistical model based on detailed measurement of the relationship between bubble coalescence at the bed surface and particle swarm ejection caused by bubble eruption. By this model, the passing frequency of particle swarms in the freeboard, the maximum rise height of the particle swarms, and the entrainment rate below the TDH can be simulated, In particular, the effect of the superficial gas velocity on the passing frequency or the entrainment rate, which has not been evaluated by model analysis, can be predicted properly.
    Download PDF (544K)
  • EIJI NAKANISHI, KOJI NANBARA
    1984 Volume 17 Issue 5 Pages 497-502
    Published: October 20, 1984
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Decoupling control of two CSTRs in series with a recycle stream was investigated on the basis of a linear time-varying time-delay model by which both nonlinearity and time-delay characteristics involved are simultaneously considered. Feasibility of decoupling control was theoretically examined first and then the effects of time-delays on decoupling control performance was investigated with the aid of digital simulations. Simulations confirmed that the design procedure used in this study is useful in attaining satisfactory decoupling control performance for a chemical reactor system in which not only strong process nonlinearity but significant time-delays may also exist.
    Download PDF (386K)
  • TSUTAO OTAKE, SETSUJI TONE, SHOICHI KIMURA, YOICHI HINO
    1984 Volume 17 Issue 5 Pages 503-508
    Published: October 20, 1984
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The kinetics of hydrogenation of CO on potassium carbonate catalyst loaded on coal char activated carbon are investigated at elevated pressures up to 3.4 MPa and at temperatures in the range 773-923 K. The potassium carbonate catalyst is shown to be active enough for methane formation via the hydrogenation of CO.
    The methane formation rate data in this reaction are well represented by a Langmuir-Hinshelwood type rate equation on the basis of dual site mechanism including an adsorption term of CO molecule. The kinetic parameters in the rate expression are investigated in relation to temperature and catalyst content. It is implied that the hydrogenation of adsorbed (CH) species is the rate-determining step in the dissociative mechanism involving the formation of active carbon via the dissociation of CO molecule.
    Download PDF (469K)
  • HIDEAKI TERASAWA, YASUHIKO H. MORI
    1984 Volume 17 Issue 5 Pages 508-513
    Published: October 20, 1984
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    An experimental study was performed on phenomena related to the instability induced by a transverse electric field at an otherwise flat interface between a laminar film of a dielectric liquid and air which is either stagnant or forced to flow cocurrently with the liquid. The instability is characterized by two-dimensional ridges parallel to the flow direction when the liquid layer is thin enough, conical crests when the liquid layer becomes thicker, or cylindrical stems, each extending to the upper electrode surface, when the air layer becomes thinner. The instability-inception condition and the dynamic feature of destabilized interface are described.
    Download PDF (767K)
  • KINGO ITAYA, SHIZUO SUGAWARA, KUNIO ARAI, SHOZABURO SAITO
    1984 Volume 17 Issue 5 Pages 514-520
    Published: October 20, 1984
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The details of a method of preparing anodic aluminum oxide membranes are presented. The porous oxide layer consists of close-packed cells of oxide, hexagonal in shape, each of which contains a single pore formed perpendicularly to the surface of the aluminum substrate. This special structural feature is essentially important for ultrafiltration and gas separation. The rejection characteristics are examined, using aqueous and nonaqueous solutions of macromolecules. The permeability of gases is also examined at different temperatures. The flow of gases is explained by the Knudsen regime alone.
    Download PDF (690K)
  • MAKOTO HARADA, FUMIO YAMAZAKI, NAOFUMI SHIOMI, MOTONARI ADACHI, WATARU ...
    1984 Volume 17 Issue 5 Pages 521-527
    Published: October 20, 1984
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The rate of iron(III) extraction and stripping by TO A in benzene-hydrochloric acid aqueous solution system is elucidated. Interfacial reaction between iron in neutral form in the aqueous phase and the adsorbed amine-acid complex plays a significant role in the extraction and the stripping rates when the hydrochloric acid concentration is low in the aqueous phase. At high acid concentration, the rates are controlled by the diffusional steps in the aqueous and the organic phases.
    Download PDF (568K)
  • MAKOTO HARADA, FUMIO YAMAZAKI, MOTONARI ADACHI, WATARU EGUCHI
    1984 Volume 17 Issue 5 Pages 527-532
    Published: October 20, 1984
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The characteristics of the liquid membrane with tri-w-octylamine were elucidated. This liquid membrane spontaneously concentrates metals without controlling the concentrations of the agent which provides the driving force to the uphill transport of metals. The rate of iron permeation through the liquid membrane is dependent on the diffusional resistances in two aqueous phases, the diffusional resistance in the membrane phase, and the interfacial resistances. When the acid concentration in the aqueous raffinate phase is large, the interfacial resistances are negligibly small, and the diffusional resistance in the membrane phase is also negligibly small at high amine concentration in the membrane phase. In this case, the permeation rate is controlled only by the diffusional resistance in the raffinate phase.
    Download PDF (465K)
  • MASAAKI MURAKI, TOYOHIKO HAYAKAWA
    1984 Volume 17 Issue 5 Pages 533-538
    Published: October 20, 1984
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Introduction of division and blending into the separation process of multicomponent products is effective from the viewpoint of reduction of the separation mass load, but it is difficult to solve this synthesis problem because there exists information feedback between the separation sequence and introduction of division and blending.
    A useful method composed of two stages-search for the optimal separation sequence, and optimization of the separation process by introduction of division and blending-is developed for synthesis of the separation process of two multicomponent products. For the former the evolutionary method, developed for the synthesis of the separation process of pure-substance products, is adopted, and for the latter a new evolutionary method, which uses the material allocation diagram to obtain useful information about the separation process, is developed. A 5-component separation process synthesis problem demonstrates the effectiveness of this method.
    Download PDF (504K)
  • NORIAKI WAKAO, SHIGEHARU TANISHO, HUA ZHANG LIU
    1984 Volume 17 Issue 5 Pages 538-541
    Published: October 20, 1984
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (280K)
  • MASABUMI NISHIKAWA, SHIGERU NISHIOKA, TAKASHI KAYAMA
    1984 Volume 17 Issue 5 Pages 541-543
    Published: October 20, 1984
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (203K)
  • KAZUNARI OHGAKI, YOICHI KANO, TAKASHI KATAYAMA
    1984 Volume 17 Issue 5 Pages 543-544
    Published: October 20, 1984
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (143K)
  • KAZUNARI OHGAKI, NAOTO SAKAI, YOICHI KANO, TAKASHI KATAYAMA
    1984 Volume 17 Issue 5 Pages 545-547
    Published: October 20, 1984
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (232K)
  • KOZO KOIDE, KAZUYOSHI HORIBE, HISATSUGU KITAGUCHI, NORIAKI SUZUKI
    1984 Volume 17 Issue 5 Pages 547-549
    Published: October 20, 1984
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (224K)
  • MITSURU OHZONO, YOSHIO IWAI, YASUHIKO ARAI
    1984 Volume 17 Issue 5 Pages 550-553
    Published: October 20, 1984
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (217K)
feedback
Top