JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF JAPAN
Print ISSN : 0021-9592
Volume 19 , Issue 6
Showing 1-19 articles out of 19 articles from the selected issue
  • YOSHINARI BABA, HIROMI NAKAMURA, KATSUTOSHI INOUE
    1986 Volume 19 Issue 6 Pages 497-502
    Published: December 20, 1986
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The extraction equilibria of gallium(III) and thallium(III) from hydrochloric acid with dihexyl sulfide (DHS=S) in 1, 2-dichloroethane were measured at 303 K to examine the effects of the concentrations of hydrochloric acid and dihexyl sulfide. The stoichiometric relation of the extraction reaction of gallium(III) was found to be:
    GaCl3+S;GaCl3S;Ke, Ga
    where the equilibrium constant was evaluated as Ke, Ga=1.9×102dm3/mol.
    Extraction of thallium(III) was found to be expressible by the following two stoichiometric relations for low and high concentration regions of hydrochloric acid, respectively.
    TlCl3+H++Cl-- + 2SHTlCl4; Ke, T1
    TlCl3+2H++2Cl-+SH2TlCl5S; Ke, T1
    where the equilibrium constants were evaluated as Ke, T1 = 4.0×106 (dm3/mol)4 and Ke, T1=1.6×105 (dm3/mol)5.
    Download PDF (442K)
  • EIZO SADA, SHIGEO KATOH, AKIHIKO KONDO, ATSUO KIYOKAWA
    1986 Volume 19 Issue 6 Pages 502-506
    Published: December 20, 1986
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The effects of ligand concentration and coupling method on the adsorption equilibrium in immuno-affinity chromatography were studied by use of polyclonal anti-BSA antibody and Fab fragments. Immobilized IgG and Fab fragments showed similar adsorption behavior, and the adsorption equilibrium was not affected by the coupling method or the concentration of immobilized ligands. However, the binding ratio, defined as the ratio of mole antigen adsorbed to mole binding site, depended on the coupling method and decreased with increasing ligand concentration.
    Download PDF (321K)
  • SHIGEHARU MOROOKA, TETSUYA MIZOGUCHI, TOKIHIRO KAGO, YASUO KATO, NOBUY ...
    1986 Volume 19 Issue 6 Pages 507-513
    Published: December 20, 1986
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Flow properties in a dissolver for direct coal liquefaction were simulated by using a cold bubble column of 12 cm i.d. To generate small gas bubbles in the column, a surfactant was added to tap water and a gas distributor with fine holes was employed. When glass spheres of 44 and 113 jim dia. were suspended in the presence of the surfactant, the gas holdup was 1.5-4 times that for the tap water system, and the axial dispersion coefficient of liquid showed a minimum at superficial gas velocities of 3-5cm•s-1. The mean settling velocity of solid particles, vp, was affected by the quality of flow in addition to gas velocity and terminal velocity of solid particles. Most values of vp obtained in this experiment were larger than those for the tap water system where no fine gas bubbles were generated. Experimental equations for the correlation of vp are presented.
    An introduction of secondary gas in the homogeneous bubble flow regime effectively increased the axial liquid mixing. This suggests that in the design of a dissolver quenching gas injection is important to attain spontaneous discharge of ash particles from the top of the vessel.
    Download PDF (427K)
  • MASAO SUDOH, TAKAMASA KODERA, KUNIO SAKAI, JING QUAN ZHANG, Kozo KOIDE
    1986 Volume 19 Issue 6 Pages 513-518
    Published: December 20, 1986
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A novel process of an oxidative degradation of aqueous phenol effluent with hydrogen peroxide produced by electroreduction of oxygen dissolved in the effluent was studied. Effects of operational conditions such as pH, cathode potential, ferrous ion concentration and phenol concentration on the degradation rate of phenol were clarified. Phenol was successively degraded to carbon dioxide at pH 3 with higher efficiency rather than the other pH''s. The COD current efficiency at pH 3 was higher than that for the anodic oxidation process of phenol and was more than 60% for complete degradation in the range of 260-2600 ppm of initial COD.
    Download PDF (397K)
  • TADASHI SHIROTSUKA, KAORU ONOE, AYUMU YOKOYAMA
    1986 Volume 19 Issue 6 Pages 519-523
    Published: December 20, 1986
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In this study, the effect on crystallite size of oxidation temperature, oxidation time, and reduction temperature was investigated by the LaM5 method to clarify the factors controlling catalytic properties. When nickel was oxidized, the increase in surface area due to powdering was considerable.
    A model of the surface area increase was proposed based upon a shrinking-core model. An increase in the oxidation and reduction temperatures was accompanied by an increase in crystallite size.
    Download PDF (406K)
  • S. K. CHANG, Y. KANG, S. D. KIM
    1986 Volume 19 Issue 6 Pages 524-530
    Published: December 20, 1986
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Mass transfer characteristics of two- (gas-liquid) and three-phase (gas-liquid-solid) fluidized beds in a 6.64cmi.d. and 1.8m-high Plexiglas column have been determined in terms of gas-liquid mass transfer coefficient and interfacial area.
    In three-phase fluidized beds, carbonate/bicarbonate buffer solution, carbon dioxide and glass beads of three sizes were used as the liquid, gas and solid phases, respectively.
    The effects of liquid velocity (5.4-13.0 cm/s), gas velocity (1.0-6.5 cm/s), liquid-phase ionic strength (0.5-3.0 mol/l) and particle size (1.7-6.0 mm) on the mass transfer coefficient and the interfacial area were determined.
    The volumetric mass transfer coefficient, kLa, and the gas/liquid interfacial area, ", increased with increasing gas velocity, particle size and liquid-phase ionic strength in three-phase fluidized beds.
    The volumetric mass transfer coefficient and the gas-liquid interfacial area were correlated in terms of gas and liquid velocities and particle size. The liquid-side mass transfer coefficient, KL, was correlated by the Schmidt and modified Reynolds numbers in the two- and three-phase fluidized beds of 6-mm particles based on the isotropic turbulence theory.
    Download PDF (530K)
  • HIROO NIIYAMA, TADASHI IMAI
    1986 Volume 19 Issue 6 Pages 531-536
    Published: December 20, 1986
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Hysteresis of catalytic activity was observed in the hydrogenation of ethylene on M/AI2O3. This is not due to the coupling of mass and heat transfer with intrinsic catalytic rate, but due to reversible and irreversible deactivation (carbon formation) and regeneration. Deactivation predominates at higher temperature, regeneration at lower temperature. This reversible deactivation and regeneration may also cause oscillatory behavior.
    Download PDF (434K)
  • TAKAO TSUKADA, MASAKAZU SATO, NOBUYUKI IMAISHI, MITSUNORI HOZAWA, KATS ...
    1986 Volume 19 Issue 6 Pages 537-542
    Published: December 20, 1986
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Drop formation in uniform and non-uniform electric fields was studied theoretically and experimentally. In the analyses, the electric field and the drop shape were calculated numerically by use of the boundary element method and the finite element method, respectively.
    It is found that the experimental maximum drop volume in a uniform electric field can be predicted well by analysis and that the experimental drop profile and the drop charge are in agreement with the calculated ones.
    The theoretical values of the maximum drop volume in a non-uniform electric field are found to agree with the experimental results of previous workers.
    Download PDF (386K)
  • KATSUAKI ONOGI, YOSHIYUKI NISHIMURA, YOSHIHIKO NAKATA, TOSHIMITSU INOM ...
    1986 Volume 19 Issue 6 Pages 542-548
    Published: December 20, 1986
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    An operating control system for a class of combined batch/semi-continuous processes based on on-line scheduling is proposed. The class of controlled plants is characterized by a series of units with limited intermediate storage and statistical variabilities in processing time. The proposed system consists of a dynamical plant simulator and an automatic scheduler. The simulator predicts the future state of the plant using the past plant record, the present internal state of the plant and the temporal operating conditions. To make operation of the plant efficient and smooth, the scheduler revises the operating conditions on the basis of the predicted state. A series of simulation experiments has shown that the system is effective in plant operation with uncertainties.
    Download PDF (581K)
  • SHAU-WEI TSAI, HO-MING YEH
    1986 Volume 19 Issue 6 Pages 548-553
    Published: December 20, 1986
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Properly installing an impermeable barrier between the plates of a continuous flat-plate thermal diffusion column may substantially increase the separation efficiency by reducing the remixing effect, while still preserving the cascading effect. Theoretical considerations show that when the column is designed with the best barrier position, maximum concentration of top product, minimum concentration of bottom product and maximum degree of separation are obtained simultaneously.
    Download PDF (398K)
  • SHIGEKI TAKISHIMA, MIKIO KONNO, KUNIO ARAI, SHOZABURO SAITO
    1986 Volume 19 Issue 6 Pages 554-560
    Published: December 20, 1986
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The micro-phase-separation structure of a system of homopolymers and a block copolymer was investigated theoretically and experimentally.
    Phase-separation experiments were carried out for the blend system of homopolystyrene and homopolyisoprene in the presence of styrene-isoprene diblock copolymer, employing solvent casting as the method for the formation of phase separation. The experimental results revealed a lamellar structure in the micro-phase-separation, and domain spacings of the structure were measured.
    A model for the lamellar structure of copolymer/homopolymer systems is proposed to predict the domain spacing on the basis of the statistical thermodynamic theory of Whitmore and Noolandi. The model can predict the domain spacing well in most cases.
    Download PDF (639K)
  • YOSHIMITSU UEMURA, YASUO HATATE, ATSUSHI IKARI
    1986 Volume 19 Issue 6 Pages 560-567
    Published: December 20, 1986
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The effects of post-impregnation drying conditions on the physical properties and overall rate of benzene hydrogenation were investigated with nickel/alumina catalysts, prepared by impregnating nickel ion-adsorptive and nickel ion-nonadsorptive aluminas and drying them under two conditions. Uniform nickel concentration profiles were obtained with the adsorptive support independent of the drying conditions, but the reduction degree of nickel by hydrogen and the nickel particle diameter were influenced by the drying conditions. With the nonadsorptive support, the drying conditions have a significant effect on the nickel profiles. In this case, the reduction degree and the particle diameter are dependent on the local all-nickel (reduced and unreduced nickel) content. The pore structure of the catalysts prepared from the nonadsorptive support was affected by the drying conditions. The experimental results of the overall reaction rate of benzene hydrogenation were found to be consistent with the change of the pore structure.
    Download PDF (576K)
  • TSUTOMU HIROSE, YASUHIRO MURAKAMI
    1986 Volume 19 Issue 6 Pages 568-574
    Published: December 20, 1986
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A hydrodynamic model is proposed to predict the power consumption in close-clearance agitators. Apparently three-dimensional flow is divided into flow perpendicular to the blade and flow along the blade, both of which are two-dimensional flows. Asymptotic solutions to the above flows are obtained by the complex analysis method and the resultant wall shear stress is synthesized vectorially to get the following correlation for the power consumption:
    NpRe= ?? In ??
    in which d, H, nb, a and δ, respectively, are impeller diameter, impeller height, number of blades, inclination angle and clearance. A correction factor β1 is taken as 0.9 for paddle and 0.7 for anchor, gate, helical ribbon and helical screw with draft tube. The above equation is found to correlate successfully the experimental data reported for various types of agitators in about 30 references.
    Download PDF (501K)
  • MITSUO KOGA, MASAYUKI YAMADA
    1986 Volume 19 Issue 6 Pages 575-580
    Published: December 20, 1986
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Soluble substances contained in various solids such as plastics, bitumen and concrete slowly migrate into surrounding liquids. These phenomena are analyzed by a modified particulate dispersion model proposed by the authors in this paper. The model is based on the assumption that a part of a solute initially forms a solid solution in the continuous phase of the solids, and the remainder is dispersed particulately.
    Basic equations based on this model have been solved numerically. The adequacy of the model was determined by a comparison of calculated curves with experimental results. Leaching of metal compounds from three kinds of plastics using dilute nitric acid was carried out. It was confirmed that the mass fraction of solid solution of solute governed the curve features in the early stage of leaching and the volume fraction of particulate solute was preferential in the later stage.
    Download PDF (410K)
  • TAKESHI KATAOKA, TADAAKI NISHIKI, MASAO YAMAUCHI
    1986 Volume 19 Issue 6 Pages 581-586
    Published: December 20, 1986
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The permeation mechanism of mercury was studied, using a newly devised three-liquid phase contact apparatus with flat interfaces. It is possible by using the apparatus for a feed, membrane and stripping solutions to contact in a similar manner as in the liquid membrane technique. Mercury in the feed phase permeates through the membrane phase of xylene solution of dicyclohexyl-24-crown-8 (C-24) to the stripping phase of sodium chloride solution. The permeation rate of mercury can be explained by a permeation model which takes account of the dissolution of mercury to the membrane phase and the interfacial reaction between mercury and C-24, in addition to the diffusion processes in the aqueous film and the membrane phase.
    Download PDF (430K)
  • MOMPEI SHIRATO, TOSHIRO MURASE, EIJI IRITANI, SHUJI NAKATSUKA
    1986 Volume 19 Issue 6 Pages 587-592
    Published: December 20, 1986
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Filter cakes can be dewatered effectively by use of bentonite slurry, which is very difficult to filter, to cover the cake surface at the end of filtration. This dewatering method has the advantage of using air pressure to compress filter cake, so that a large amount of cake is easily deliquored. In the previous paper, on the assumption that the amount of permeated water from the bentonite cake was negligible, the consolidation effect was investigated on the basis of the conventional expression equations. In this paper, in order to examine both the internal mechanism and the overall characteristics of the compressed cakes under dewatering, a rigorous analysis is developed in which the effects of water permeation from the bentonite cake are taken into account. Predictions using the present analysis are shown to be in good agreement with experimental results of the hydraulic pressure distributions in the compressed cake and the average consolidation ratio.
    Download PDF (488K)
  • ISAO KOMASAWA, NOBUHIRO KUROKAWA, YASUNOBU MAEKAWA, TSUTAO OTAKE
    1986 Volume 19 Issue 6 Pages 592-598
    Published: December 20, 1986
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The extraction of hydrochloric acid was investigated as a basis for the study of metal extraction from this acid solution, employing diluents with differing solvating characteristics to the quaternary salt, such as benzene, xylene, chloroform and 2-ethylhexyl alcohol. The extent of hydration and extraction performance for the acid of the salt depend strongly on the diluent employed and these are reasonably interpreted by the solvation effect of each diluent. Extraction equilibrium formulations were established, in which the effect of displacement of water normally associated with the salt by acid was taken into account. The extraction constants were also determined for acid feed concentration up to 10mol/l.
    Download PDF (531K)
  • SHUN WACHI, HISASHI MORIKAWA
    1986 Volume 19 Issue 6 Pages 598-601
    Published: December 20, 1986
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (281K)
  • YASUO HATATE, HIROSHI HAMADA, ATSUSHI IKARI, FUMIYUKI NAKASHIO
    1986 Volume 19 Issue 6 Pages 602-605
    Published: December 20, 1986
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (223K)
feedback
Top