JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF JAPAN
Print ISSN : 0021-9592
Volume 19 , Issue 3
Showing 1-16 articles out of 16 articles from the selected issue
  • KATSUROKU TAKAHASHI, HIROSHI TAKEUCHI
    1986 Volume 19 Issue 3 Pages 161-166
    Published: June 20, 1986
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Interfacial tensions were measured by the drop volume method for four systems: (1) LIX65N-kerosene solution-water, (2) LIX65N solution loaded with copper-water, (3) LIX65N solution-aqueous sulfuric acid solution of copper sulfate (the condition of copper extraction), and (4) LIX65N solution loaded with copper-aqueous sulfuric acid solution (the condition of copper stripping). A change in the interfacial tension obtained was used to estimate copper complex concentration adsorbed at the liquid-liquid interface. It is suggested that for the present copper extraction system there is a large resistance in the dissolving step of copper complex adsorbed at the interface into the oil phase, while for the copper stripping both the adsorption of copper complex from the oil phase to the interface and the reaction between the copper complex adsorbed at the interface and hydrogen ion in the aqueous phase are of significance.
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  • TAKAO OHMORI, MORIO OKAZAKI, RYOZO TOEI
    1986 Volume 19 Issue 3 Pages 167-172
    Published: June 20, 1986
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The heat transfer coefficient between the heating wall and the granular bed in the stationary heating-plane type of indirect-heat agitated dryer was measured. Taking account of the effect of the clearance between heating wall and agitating blade, an improved heat transfer model was proposed. This model can also describe the dependence of the heat transfer coefficient on the circumferential velocity of the agitator, the thermal properties of the granular material, the particle size and so on. Furthermore, it was confirmed that this model was usable when the particles were non-spherical or when scale-up of the dryer was considered.
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  • KYUNG Ho ROW, WON KOOK LEE
    1986 Volume 19 Issue 3 Pages 173-180
    Published: June 20, 1986
    Released: April 19, 2006
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    By gas-liquid chromatography, three close-boiling components (dichloromethane, diethylether, and dimethoxymethane) were separated with dinonylphthalate-coated Chromosorb A as a stationary liquid phase and helium as an eluant.
    Partition coefficients for the materials were measured experimentally with varying column temperatures. The effect of superficial velocity of eluant on the axial dispersion coefficient was correlated by Fourier analysis of response curves as
    E=0.707DM+rpu1.539o.
    The diffusion coefficient in the pore spacing, De, was also obtained for each component.
    Based on the parameters estimated, the effects of superficial velocity of eluant and column length on resolution were investigated through comparisons between calculated and experimental values. As superficial velocity of eluant and column length were increased, the pressure drop through the column was affected considerably on the variation of the velocity.
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  • MASAKUNI MATSUOKA, MASAYUKI OHISHI, SHUNJI KASAMA
    1986 Volume 19 Issue 3 Pages 181-185
    Published: June 20, 1986
    Released: April 19, 2006
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    In order to obtain highly purified organic substances, sweating of crude crystalline particles was investigated with two organics; m-chloronitrobenzene and p-dichlorobenzene. By maintaining the crude crystals at a temperature close to the equilibrium one in order to form melts and followed by rapid drainage of the melts, the crystals were found to be purified upto 99.99% within 1.5 or 2hr. The final purity was found to depend on the sweating temperature. The rate of purification was analyzed with a model that the drainage of the melts dominated the phenomena of sweating. Empirically, the rate of removal of the melts was expressed as k(α-α)2 where k is the coefficient for purification rates and (α-α) denotes the free melts removable by the sweating. The values of k were found to be common to the examined two organics and α, was a function of the sweating temperature. The purification rate was thus analyzed quantitatively.
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  • KENJI HARAYA, YUJI SHINDO, TOSHIKATSU HAKUTA, HIROSHI YOSHITOME
    1986 Volume 19 Issue 3 Pages 186-190
    Published: June 20, 1986
    Released: April 19, 2006
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    Separations of H2-CO mixtures were studied in the intermediate flow region with four kinds of porous glass membranes of pore diameters 3.1, 5.8, 11 and 20 nm. Taking into account the change of viscosity in the flow direction, the observed data were analysed by the permeation equations proposed by Present and deBethune.
    The calculated results with these equations are in good agreement with the observed ones except that for the membrane of largest pore size. This deviation can be predicted by consideration of concentration polarization at the membrane surface on the high-pressure side because of high flux.
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  • KAZUO SUZUKI, YOSHITAKA KUWAHARA
    1986 Volume 19 Issue 3 Pages 191-195
    Published: June 20, 1986
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Wet grinding of Si powder under seven environmental conditions was carried out, using a laboratory vibration ball mill. The physical properties of the grinding fluids used affected the increase of specific surface area. Based on the results of multiple regression analysis of the relation between Rittinger''s number and the physical properties of grinding fluids, it was found that the grinding rate decreased with the increase of either viscosity or surface tension, and increased with dipole moment, in the range of the experimental conditions. These experimental results were studied from the viewpoint of fracture mechanics, considering the surface energy of materials and ball motion in the vibration ball mill with viscous fluids. It was also found that surface tension and dipole moment of grinding fluids affect the fracture energy of materials, and that viscosity affects the impact velocity (energy) of the ball.
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  • MAKOTO HARADA, YOSHIKAZU MIYAKE
    1986 Volume 19 Issue 3 Pages 196-207
    Published: June 20, 1986
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The rate of metal extraction by chelating agents was formulated by taking into account the reaction processes in the aqueous phase and in the interfacial zone, in order to understand systematically the complicated features of extraction kinetics. The interfacial reaction rate was expressed in term of rate constants of the reaction in aqueous solution. The rate of metal extraction was expressed with use of the resistances in the stagnant films, in the interfacial zone, and in the aqueous bulk phase. The solubility of the chelating agent in the aqueous phase is important for explaining the complex characteristics of metal extraction. It is essential for interpreting the characteristics of the extraction rates in the less soluble chelating agent system that the metal complex in neutral form is produced in the interfacial zone by reaction between the adsorbed metal complex cation and the chelating agent dissolved in the aqueous phase.
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  • PAILIN CHUCHOTTAWORN, KOICHI ASANO
    1986 Volume 19 Issue 3 Pages 208-214
    Published: June 20, 1986
    Released: April 19, 2006
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    Numerical analyses of the drag coefficients and the heat and mass transfer from a spheroidal liquid drop under low mass flux conditions were made by use of a finite difference method for Rep=1-200, Pr or Sc=0.5-2.0 and aspect ratio=0.3-2.0. The present numerical data were compared with existing experimental and numerical data and showed good agreement. The effect of deformation from spherical to spheroidal shape on drag coefficients and heat and diffusion fluxes of a spheroidal particle or a drop were studied. A new correlation for the effect of the aspect ratio (b/a) on heat and mass transfer of a spheroidal drop was proposed.
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  • MOTOAKI ADACHI, KIKUO OKUYAMA, YASUO KOUSAKA, NARITOSHI KIT ADA
    1986 Volume 19 Issue 3 Pages 214-221
    Published: June 20, 1986
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The diffusion charging of ultrafine aerosol particles by bipolar ions, where positive and negative ion concentrations were unequal, was studied experimentally in a low electric field. Monodisperse particles with diameters from 20 nm to 60 nm were charged by unequal concentrations of bipolar ions having various number ratios of negative ions to positive ions, and were enlarged by condensation of DBF vapor on them for visualization. Positively charged particles were distinguished from negatively charged ones by observation of their behavior in the electric field. The experimental results on the charge distribution were found to depend on the number ratio of negative ions to positive ions and the product of total ion number concentration and charging time. Further, they were well described by the birth-death equation with the combination probability of ions and particles proposed by Fuchs.
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  • SHIN-ICHI NAKAO, TSUYOSHI NOMURA, SHOJI KIMURA, ATSUO WATANABE
    1986 Volume 19 Issue 3 Pages 221-226
    Published: June 20, 1986
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Three kinds of inorganic dynamic membranes for ultrafiltration were formed on ceramic support tubes by filtering colloid solutions of Zr(IV), Al(III) and Fe(III). Permeate fluxes and molecular weight cut-off values were controlled not only by conditions such as pressure, pH and colloid concentration during membrane formation, but also by the membrane formation time. The Zr(IV) dynamic membrane had the best mechanical stability among the three kinds of membranes obtained in this study. This membrane also had good resistance to temperature up to 353 K and to pH in the range of 3-11.
    Results of analysis based on the steric-hindrance pore model suggested that the active layer thickness of Zr(IV) membranes, namely the thickness of the deposit layer, was smaller than that of a polymer ultrafiltration membrane, a membrane that had almost the same rejection ability as the Zr(IV) membrane.
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  • SHUICHI YAMAMOTO, MASAKI NOMURA, YUJI SANO
    1986 Volume 19 Issue 3 Pages 227-231
    Published: June 20, 1986
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Since gel filtration chromatography with particles having a relatively small diameter and high mechanical stability (medium-performance gel filtration chromatography, MPGFC) is useful not only in scaling up the separation of proteins buj also in reducing the separation time, HETP of proteins and pressure drop were measured for MPGFC (particle diameter, 44μm) columns of various column dimensions. The smallest column was 1.0cm in diameter and 30cm in length (24cm3), while the largest was 9 × 90cm (5726cm3). The dependences of HETP and of pressure drop per unit length on column dimensions were found to be negligible for these columns. The sample volume dependence of HETP was predicted well on the basis of the HETP at small sample volumes, when the protein concentration is low. However, when the protein concentration was increased to above 3%, HETP increased sharply. This increase of HETP was considered to be due to the relative difference between the viscosity of the sample and that of the elution buffer. From the above results, we expect that the scaling up of MPGFC of proteins can be easily carried out on the basis of the data obtained with a small column.
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  • HIROMITSU KOJIMA, HIROYUKI ANJYO, YASUHIRO MOCHIZUKI
    1986 Volume 19 Issue 3 Pages 232-234
    Published: June 20, 1986
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • YOSHISHIGE HAYASHI, EIJI HIRAI, MASAKAZU OTAKI
    1986 Volume 19 Issue 3 Pages 235-237
    Published: June 20, 1986
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • MASASHI ASAEDA, LUONG DINH DU, Koso IKEDA
    1986 Volume 19 Issue 3 Pages 238-240
    Published: June 20, 1986
    Released: April 19, 2006
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  • ISAMI YOSHIFUKU
    1986 Volume 19 Issue 3 Pages 241-242
    Published: June 20, 1986
    Released: April 19, 2006
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  • VENNETI M. H. GOVINDARAO, M. CHIDAMBARAM
    1986 Volume 19 Issue 3 Pages 243-245
    Published: June 20, 1986
    Released: April 19, 2006
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