JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF JAPAN
Print ISSN : 0021-9592
Volume 2 , Issue 2
Showing 1-21 articles out of 21 articles from the selected issue
  • TOMOKO NAKAHARA, MITSUHO HIRATA
    1969 Volume 2 Issue 2 Pages 137-142
    Published: July 31, 1969
    Released: April 26, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The Solution model of hydrogen in hydrocarbons is presented for the calculation of Henry''s constant. This model includes the following considerations.
    i) To avoid the large volume change of the gas in the dissolving process, the gas before mixing should be brought to the state where its molar volume is the same as that which the hydrogen whould have in the dilutely dissolved state. This partial molar volume of hydrogen at infinite dilution is obtained from the fact that in an ideal solution the free volumes of solute and solvent are equal.
    ii) The mutual interaction of hydrogen molecules which are dissolved quite dilutely in a liquid phase can be neglected. Then the mixture of hydrogen and hydrocarbons is ideal in both vapor and liquid phase.
    For eight hydrogen-hydrocarbon systems, except for the hydrogen-methane system, the calculated Henry''s constants agree well with the experimental results.
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  • MITSUHO HIRATA, SEIJIRO SUDA, TOSHIKATSU HAKUTA, KUNIO NAGAHAMA
    1969 Volume 2 Issue 2 Pages 143-149
    Published: July 31, 1969
    Released: April 26, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Ethylene diamine-water system is known to form a maximum boiling mixture with 2O to 25 per cent by weight of water at 118.5°C8) or 118.7°C4) under atmospheric pressure. In this paper experimentally determined results for the vapor-liquid equilibrium relations under various pressures are presented and the pressure effect on azeotropism is discussed.
    From the results disappearance of the azeotrope was clearly shown under slightly pressurised conditions above 1.77 atm. absolute and the degree of variation in relative volatility with composition decreased with increase in pressure. Possibility of separating the mixture into its components without adding a third component was also shown from the resultant vapor-liquid equilibrium relations.
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  • MOTOYOSHI HASHITANI, MITSUHO HIRATA
    1969 Volume 2 Issue 2 Pages 149-153
    Published: July 31, 1969
    Released: April 26, 2006
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    Vapor-liquid equilibrium data have been obtained for the systems methyl acetate-methanol and ethyl acetate-ethanol with potassium acetate and with zinc chloride at atmospheric pressure. The relative volatility increased little for the ethyl acetate-ethanol-potassium acetate system, but it increased considerably for other systems. The breaking of azeotropy was observed in the systems with zinc chloride.
    An empirical equation is proposed to correlate vapor-liquid equilibrium data for the systems containing salt. The equation includes terms of both salt concentration and liquid composition.
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  • NOBUO MITSUISHI, OSAMU MIYATAKE, MITSUGU TANAKA
    1969 Volume 2 Issue 2 Pages 153-158
    Published: July 31, 1969
    Released: April 26, 2006
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    A theoretical analysis of heat transfer to Newtonian fluids in laminar flow in concentric annul! was developed under the conditions of constant temperature inner wall and insulated outer wall, taking into account the temperature dependency of viscosity and density.
    The arithmetic mean Nusselt number was obtained as a function of the Graetz number with K, μwo and Grw/Rew as parameters.
    Furthermore, experimental data were obtained for two different diameter ratios K.
    It was found that theoretical predictions are in reasonably good accord with experimental data.
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  • KENJI HASHIMOTO, KEIICHI TSUTO, KAZUHISA MIYAMOTO, NOBORU HASHIMOTO, N ...
    1969 Volume 2 Issue 2 Pages 158-163
    Published: July 31, 1969
    Released: April 26, 2006
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    A systematic approach to determining the kinetics of multiple reactions catalyzed by solid catalyst is demonstrated for the hydrogenation of mesityl oxide. First, obviously inadequate models were eliminated by a check of the initial rates, and secondly the precise parameters were evaluated by a nonlinear least squares method. It was found that this reaction is a consecutive reaction consisting of two steps in both of which reaction occurs between the dissociated hydrogen atoms adsorbed on the surface of the catalyst and the adsorbed molecules of the organic substances.
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  • HIROSHI KOMIYAMA, HAKUAI INOUE
    1969 Volume 2 Issue 2 Pages 163-170
    Published: July 31, 1969
    Released: April 26, 2006
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    A new model, in which both effectiveness factors of micropore and macropore are taken into consideration, has been proposed for the analysis of the selectivity of the intermediate product in a consecutive gas-solid catalytic reaction. This model is applied to the synthesis of ethylene oxide with silver catalyst, on which many papers had been presented without regard to the effectiveness factors of the catalyst used. Many experimental results in those papers are studied and analyzed by this model. From these analyses it may be concluded that: (1) this catalyst system is well simulated by tha model, (2) the reaction scheme is the simple consecutive one C2H4→C2H4O→CO, CO2 with k1/k2 about 16, and (3) tha ratio of the effectiveness factors of micropore are regarded as constant in this system, and so tha main factors that dominate the selectivity of ethylene oxide are tha ratio of the effectiveness factors of macropore and the conversion of ethylene.
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  • KUNIO YOSHIDA, DAIZO KUNII
    1969 Volume 2 Issue 2 Pages 170-174
    Published: July 31, 1969
    Released: April 26, 2006
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    A method of analysis is presented for the reaction between a porous solid and a gas when the diffusion resistance is significant. The kinetic expression used is linear with respect to the concentration of reacting gas.
    As a typical example, experiments of gasification of graphite sph-res with carbon dioxide were carried out and the results were compared with the proposed model, where the change of the porous structure due to the reaction is considered. The computed values agreed favorably with the experimental data for the early stage of the reaction.
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  • MASARU ISHIDA, TAKASHI SHIRAI
    1969 Volume 2 Issue 2 Pages 175-179
    Published: July 31, 1969
    Released: April 26, 2006
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    Two types of nomographs are presented for solid-gas reactions based on "unreacted-core shrinking model". One is to determine the temperature at the reacting core surface, which has so far been calculated only by numerical computations. The other is to predict whether or not thermal or transitional instability exists during the course of reactions. A triangular diagram for reaction paths is also presented to show the reaction regime and the inter-relating effects among the three rate controlling steps (i. e., chemical reaction, mass transfer, and heat transfer) during the course of reactions, with two numerical illustrations.
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  • MASARU ISHIDA, TAKASHI SHIRAI
    1969 Volume 2 Issue 2 Pages 180-185
    Published: July 31, 1969
    Released: April 26, 2006
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    Burning rate of a carbon-cement sphere in a hot air stream was investigated both analytically and experimentally. Under diffusion-controlled conditions, the interface between the reacted shell and the unreacted core could very distinctly be recognized and its radius could be determined from the temperature recording chart at any moment. Based on non-isothermal analysis of an unreacted-core model, the data could be explained satisfactorily by the effective diffusivity, De, which showed good correspondence with the permeability coefficient, k.
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  • MASAAKI TERAMOTO, TOSHIO NAGAYASU, TATSURO MATSUI, KENJI HASHIMOTO, SH ...
    1969 Volume 2 Issue 2 Pages 186-192
    Published: July 31, 1969
    Released: April 26, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The selectivity of (1, 1) order gas-liquid reactions was studied by taking into account mass transfer in the diffusion film. An approximate method for calculating the yield of an intermediate product and reaction time was presented. Consecutive chlorination of p-cresol was carried cut in a stirred tank reactor with a constant gas-liquid contacting area, and the effects of various reaction conditions such as stirring speed and dilution of chlorine with air on the yield of the intermediate product were examined.
    It was found that experimental results were well explained by the theory, and the approximate solutions could give good estimations for the yield and the reaction time.
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  • SHINZO OMI, TEIJI UEDA, HIROSHI KUBOTA
    1969 Volume 2 Issue 2 Pages 193-198
    Published: July 31, 1969
    Released: April 26, 2006
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    The change in number of polymer particles formed in the continuous emulsion polymerization of styrene under operational conditions is theoretically analyzed on the basis of the authors'' kinetic data, previously obtained in a batch reactor. The phenomenon of the limit cycle observed in this continuous system is explained. It is noted that the application of "the seeder" to formation of polymer particles will be recommended in practical operations.
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  • AKINORI MATSUURA, JUMEI HARADA, TAKASHI AKEHATA, TAKASHI SHIRAI
    1969 Volume 2 Issue 2 Pages 199-203
    Published: July 31, 1969
    Released: April 26, 2006
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    The rate of the homogeneous reaction of dissolved oxygen and ammonium sulfite in aqueous solutions without catalysts, which has industrial importance in recovery of sulfur dioxide, was studied at 2O, 25 and 3O °C. A polarographic method using a platinum microelectrode was employed for the determination of the oxygen concentration during the course of reaction. Two reactors of different size, which contained O.5 and 4.7 l of solution, respectively, were found to give essentially the same results. The rate of ammonium sulfite oxidation was found to be about one tenth of that of sodium sulfite. The influence of impurities on the rate was found very remarkable. The existence of inhibitors suggested that the reaction might be a radical one. An empirical rate equation, r=k[SO32-]3/2[O2]0[H+]2 in M•min-1 with k= 1.6× 1039exp(-35× 103/RT), was obtained in the experimental range of this work.
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  • KUNIO KATO, NAOTAKE TAKEUCHI, UTARO ITO, HIROSHI KUBOTA
    1969 Volume 2 Issue 2 Pages 204-208
    Published: July 31, 1969
    Released: April 26, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In a fixed bed it was ascertained that the rate of catalytic hydrogenation of ethylene on Nicatalyst was approximately expressed by either the first or the second-order equation, respectively, for two different feed compositions of the reactants. The same reaction was carried out in a packed-fluidized bed in which glass spheres or cylindrical wire nets were used as packing materials. The results showed that the conversion of ethylene was correlated solely with Lmf/uf and was independent of the fluidizing condition. The concept of contact efficiency will be used to express the performance of the reaction in a packed fluidized bed.
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  • ISAO KOMASAWA, TOSHISUKE SASAKURA, TSUTAO OTAKE
    1969 Volume 2 Issue 2 Pages 208-211
    Published: July 31, 1969
    Released: April 26, 2006
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    This paper aims to present some experimental studies of reacting and coalescing dispersed phase in a stirred tank reactor.
    Reaction conversions were measured for a 2nd order reaction in the dispersed phase between two reactants, K4[Fe(CN)6] and K2S2O8, which entered the reactor in identical fashion in separate dispersed phase streams. The interaction rates were evaluated by comparing the reaction conversions measured with those calculated by Spielman and Levenspiel. Direct measurements of the interaction rates were also carried out by a light transmittance technique at the same condition as that in the measurement of reaction conversion.
    It was found that the interaction rates measured by a chemical reaction were in agreement with those measured directly by a physical method within the limits of the experiments. Some problems of the studies are also discussed.
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  • HIROTAKA KQNNO, SHOZABURO SAITO
    1969 Volume 2 Issue 2 Pages 211-217
    Published: July 31, 1969
    Released: April 26, 2006
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    The pneumatic transport of solid particles in both horizontal and vertical pipes was studied using glass beads, copper spheres, millet and grass seeds, having diameters ranging from 0.1 to 1.0mm. It was shown that the additional pressure drop and the particle velocity could be expressed by ΔPs/L=0.057 (ua/√gD)mρa, and us=ua-ut, respectively, in the case of vertical transport.
    In vertical transport, the copper spheres and glass beads were found to be densely distributed toward the wall of the pipe whereas higher concentration near the axis was observed for, polystyrene particles.
    The velocity profile of the air in the vertical pipe was symmetrical and was not appreciably affected by the addition of the particles. However, in the horizontal pipe, the velocity profile was asymmetric with respect to the pipe axis, and was found to be affected by the particle diameter, density, and the mass flow ratio of the air and the particles.
    A simple impulsive model was used to explain the additional pressure drop in horizontal conduits, which was thought to be caused mainly by the collision between the particles and the surface of the pipe wall.
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  • NOBUO MITSUISHI, NOBUYUKI HIRAI
    1969 Volume 2 Issue 2 Pages 217-224
    Published: July 31, 1969
    Released: April 26, 2006
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    A modified Reynolds number in the agitation, based on the Ellis and Sutterby models of three rheological constants for non-Newtonian fluids, is defined in the way that the relation between friction factor and Reynolds number in the case of non-Newtonian pipe flow may be the same as that in the case of Newtonian pipe flow.
    Introducing this modified Reynolds number, the same correlation of the power requirements can be applied to both experimental results of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids with various types of impellers.
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  • SHIN-ICHI MAKISHIMA, TAKASHI SHIRAI
    1969 Volume 2 Issue 2 Pages 224-228
    Published: July 31, 1969
    Released: April 26, 2006
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    The method of approach by "Mero-plastical Dynamics"** has been applied to estimate the shearing stress and inertia force for agitating fluidised beds.
    The modified "M"number, HM'', which has been derived from the force balance for agitating fluidised solid beds, is defined as follows,
    NM'' =NR/√gLetanφ
    which is based on fluidised solid beds, radius of blade and rotational speed, and is quite similar to the Reynolds number for agitating liquids.
    The general correlation of the power number, Np, with HM'' for agitating fluidised beds, including the literature data, has been determined experimentally in the following equation similar to those for agitating fixed solid beds and for liquids in tanks.
    NP=35NM''-1+50
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  • MINEO IKEDA, HIROAKI MASUDA, MASAHIRO YORIZANE
    1969 Volume 2 Issue 2 Pages 229-233
    Published: July 31, 1969
    Released: April 26, 2006
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    A necessary condition for the optimization of multistage counter-current processes is derived in a variant of the discrete maximum principle. This result can be used to optimize a process where the states in any number of stages have direct effects on one another. To illustrate this, a multistage countercurrent extraction process is analyzed; and under a certain performance index such a process is found to have an advantage over the corresponding crosscurrent process.
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  • YASUHIKO ARAI, SHOZABURO SAITO, SIRO MAEDA
    1969 Volume 2 Issue 2 Pages 234-235
    Published: July 31, 1969
    Released: April 26, 2006
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    A marked improvement in the prediction of vapor-liquid equilibria for the carbon dioxide-oxygen system was obtained by adopting a new value of C0 in the BWR constants for oxygen which was determined by using saturated density data near the normal boiling point.
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  • RYUICHI AOKI, MASAYUKI SUZUKI
    1969 Volume 2 Issue 2 Pages 235-238
    Published: July 31, 1969
    Released: April 26, 2006
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    From an analogy of the slip-line analysis of metal plastic working, the slip-lines in the stress field of a powder bed compressed by rough parallel plates were drawn and the normal stresses on the wall were calculated using Coulomb''s equation. These calculated values were compared with the experimental data, and the following conclusions were drawn;
    (1) Under the critical stress state, the compressed powders reveal the same behavior of a continuum as far as it is possible to analyze neglecting the bed density.
    (2) The powder yield locus for the compress!ve stress field cannot be a Coulomb type straight line, but is a Farley-Valentin type curve convexing to the left.
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  • HIROSHI KUBOTA, YOKO YAMANAKA
    1969 Volume 2 Issue 2 Pages 238-240
    Published: July 31, 1969
    Released: April 26, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    It is illustratively shown that the approximate method of estimating the catalyst effectiveness factor, previously presented by the authors, is widely applicable in general cases and also that the nonisothermal effect within the catalyst on the effectiveness factor is minor.
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