JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF JAPAN
Print ISSN : 0021-9592
Volume 20 , Issue 4
Showing 1-21 articles out of 21 articles from the selected issue
  • HIROSHI TAODA, KIYOSHI HAYAKAWA, KAORU KAWASE
    1987 Volume 20 Issue 4 Pages 335-338
    Published: August 20, 1987
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Photosensitized isomerization of norbornadiene to quadricyclene was investigated by using several photosensitizers such as toluene, acetone, acetophenone, benzophenone and α-naphthoquinone. The effect of wavelength on the quantum yield of quadricyclene and on the energy conversion efficiency was measured by using spectroirradiator. The formation of byproduct polymer in the presence of photosensitizers was also studied. The formation of polymers during irradiation, which prevents the repeated use of energy storage material, was effectively suppressed by the addition of several phenolic substances into norbornadiene.
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  • TSUTOMU HIROSE
    1987 Volume 20 Issue 4 Pages 339-345
    Published: August 20, 1987
    Released: April 19, 2006
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    A set of nonlinear partial differential equations of material balance on pressure swing adsorption (PSA) is expanded around a small value of cycle time to study the effects of nonlinearity of adsorption isotherm on PSA performance. Solution of the zeroth-order term is given by a quadrature to predict the time-averaged concentration C, and the solution of the first-order term is given by an ordinary linear differential equation to predict the concentration swing ΔC. In the case of surface diffusion control, a moderately favorable adsorption isotherm is advantageous in that the column length required to attain the desired level of product gas concentration is minimized. The relative concentration swing ΔC/C is almost independent of the type of adsorption isotherm. The present analysis may be a good approximation if cycle time is less than the reciprocal of the volumetric mass transfer coefficient based on driving force of the amount adsorbed per unit bed volume.
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  • KIKUO OZAWA, RISHICHI MIMURA, KIYOTAKA SAKAI
    1987 Volume 20 Issue 4 Pages 345-351
    Published: August 20, 1987
    Released: April 19, 2006
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    Plasma separation experiments with a hollow fibrous filter were made to clarify the effects of hematocrit, protein concentration and wall shear rate on filtrate flux. The resistance of the polarization layer caused by red blood cells is the dominant factor in filtration and accounts for 50 to 80% of total filtration resistance. Factors governing the filtrate flux in plasma separation are plasma viscosity, hematocrit and wall shear rate. An estimation equation for filtrate flux is proposed.
    Membrane structural changes after plasma separation were evaluated to clarify fouling characteristics in plasma separation by using radioisotope-labeled solute and scanning electron microscopy. The decrease in pore diameter and surface porosity is attributed to both protein adsorption onto pore walls and plugging by red blood cells.
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  • KIYOTAKA SAKAI, SHINGO TAKESAWA, RISHICHI MIMURA, HIDEHIKO OHASHI
    1987 Volume 20 Issue 4 Pages 351-356
    Published: August 20, 1987
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Little is known of the structure of hollow-fiber dialysis membranes for clinical use or of the effects of structure on solute and pure water permeability. Knowledge of such aspects of membrane structure as pore radius, surface porosity, tortuosity and water content is required if the desired membranes are to be designed.
    The objective of the present study, therefore, is to obtain data on the pore radius, surface porosity and tortuosity of hollow-fiber dialysis membranes through an analysis of measured water content, and of solute and pure water permeability on the basis of a newly introduced tortuous pore model. In regenerated cellulose membranes, pore radius ranges from 21 to 34 × 10-10 m, and huge pores ranging in radius from 47 to 64 × 10-10 m are identified for EVA membranes which are permeable to small amounts of serum protein. Values for surface porosity of the regenerated cellulose and EVA membranes are approximately 33 and 22%, and tortuosity is approximately 1.9 and 2.2, respectively. The tortuous pore model combined with the Lp and Pm method is well suited for elucidating the relationship between membrane structure and solute and pure water permeability.
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  • YUJI TANAKA, DABIR S. VISWANATH
    1987 Volume 20 Issue 4 Pages 356-362
    Published: August 20, 1987
    Released: April 19, 2006
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    Molar refraction and molar polarization were used as new third parameters to correlate the second virial coefficients of nonpolar and polar gases, and their mixtures. A set of consistent data from the compilation of Dymond and SmithSP6) was used for the source data. The correlation was compared extensively with the correlations of Tsonopoulos, Tarakad-Danner, Brewer, Kubic and Vetere. In addition to the new third parameter, the utility of Pitzer''s acentric factor was also tested. The correlation developed was of the general type
    BPc/RTc=f(0)T/Tc)+κ•f(1)T/Tc) (1)
    Where κ is the third parameter.
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  • KUNIO KATAOKA, YASUYUKI OKADA, YASUNORI MORIKAWA, AKINORI IWATA
    1987 Volume 20 Issue 4 Pages 363-368
    Published: August 20, 1987
    Released: April 19, 2006
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    To reexamine the mechanism of liquid-phase mass transfer across a free interface, absorption of pure oxygen into an aqueous solution of KOH was studied experimentally by making use of an electrolytic reaction of dissolved oxygen: O2+2H2O+4e-4OH-. The gas-liquid interface was periodically renewed by an artificially-induced rolling-up vortex motion. It was found that the fractional rate of surface renewal is proportional to the velocity amplitude divided by the wavelength of the periodical vortex motion and that the Sherwood number of liquid-phase mass transfer is in proportion to the square root of the Peclet number.
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  • KIYOSHI IKEMIZU, MASAFUMI ORITA, MASAHIKO SAGIIKE, SHIGEHARU MOROOKA, ...
    1987 Volume 20 Issue 4 Pages 369-374
    Published: August 20, 1987
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The ozonation rates of organic refractory compounds such as aliphatic carboxylic acids and alcohols were determined in water at 293 K. The experiment was carried out by recirculating a solution between an ozone absorption column and a rectangular ozone/UV reactor, and the time-dependent changes in concentration of organic substances were directly measured.
    In the presence of UV radiation of about 30W•m-2, the initial ozonation rate of organic substances was increased by 10-104 times.
    The total organic carbon was effectively decreased in the presence of UV radiation. This was explained by the destruction of acetic and oxalic acid by HO radicals which were produced in the ozone/UV system. The ozone/UV oxidation rate of acetic and oxalic acid was roughly proportional to the degree of dissociation.
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  • HIDEKI TSUGE, YASUSHI KOTAKI, SHIN-ICHI HIBINO
    1987 Volume 20 Issue 4 Pages 374-379
    Published: August 20, 1987
    Released: April 19, 2006
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    Crystallization experiments with calcium carbonate by three liquid-liquid reaction systems from a MSMPR crystallizer were conducted to make clear the characteristics of reactive crystallization kinetics.
    As it was confirmed that the crystal growth obeys the ΔL law from the CSD obtained, the nucleation rate and growth rate were obtained. The effects of the operating factors and the reaction systems on the crystallization kinetics were studied. It was clarified that the nucleation rate and the growth rate are correlated by the power law model, and that the kinetic orders in the power law model are correlated with carbonate alkah''nity irrespective of reaction system.
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  • HITOSHI HASHIMOTO, TATSUO SHINOZAKI, SABURO YASHIMA
    1987 Volume 20 Issue 4 Pages 380-385
    Published: August 20, 1987
    Released: April 19, 2006
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    Grinding tests on brittle materials were carried out both under reduced pressure and under atmospheric pressure, using a laboratory hammer mill and a vacuum vessel. Finer products were obtained under reduced pressure than under atmospheric pressure.
    To explain the experimental results from the standpoint of single fracture, a model calculation was carried out by using a simplified model of the hammer mill. In the model calculation, the friction drag of air, the effect of atmospheric pressure on the strength of brittle particles, the dependence of Young''s modulus, Poisson''s ratio and the strength on the loading rate, and the dependence of the strength on the particle''s volume were taken into account. It was found that a part of the experimental results was explained by the model calculation.
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  • ISAMU YABE, KIYOSHI TODA, HIROSHI MATSUOKA
    1987 Volume 20 Issue 4 Pages 386-392
    Published: August 20, 1987
    Released: April 19, 2006
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    The accuracy of measurement of intravesicular pH with a pH-sensitive fluorescent probe of pyranine (8-hydjoxy1, 3, 6-pyrenetrisulfonate) was investigated extensively. The determination of fluorescence anisotropies of the liposomes comprising pyranine indicated that the fraction of pyranine adsorbed on the internal surface of liposomes was several percent of the intravesicular concentration of pyranine. Secondly, it was confirmed that interference by phospholipid in fluorescence measurement of intravesicular pyranine could be compensated simply by subtracting the background fluorescence. A parametric quantity, [IT(450)-IL(450)]/[IT(400)-IL(400)], was defined that indicated a ratio of the fluorescence intensities of intravesicular pyranine [IT-IL] measured at excitation wave lengths of 400 and 450 nm. By calibrating the parameter to pH of standard pyranine solutions, we could determine the intravesicular pH within a standard deviation of 0.011 pH.
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  • ISAMU YABE, KIYOSHI TODA, HIROSHI MATSUOKA
    1987 Volume 20 Issue 4 Pages 392-398
    Published: August 20, 1987
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Simultaneous changes of pH in the inner and outer liquids of proteoliposomes, the membrane of which consisted of asolectin and bacteriorhodopsin (BR), were determined during transient states after a shift from the light to the dark and the reverse. Some mathematical equations of a model characterizing the mechanism of the proton transport through the proteoliposome membrane were developed by considering the proton pump of BR, lightdependent and light-independent proton leaks from the liposomes, and buffering capacities of the intra- and extravesicular liquids. The model equations (equations 8(A) and 8(B)) could assess the effect of concurrent change of the bilateral proton concentrations on the rate of proton transport and could simulate well the dynamic aspect of pH changes within the internal and external liquid of the proteoliposomes.
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  • YUJI SANO, HIROMOTO USUI
    1987 Volume 20 Issue 4 Pages 399-404
    Published: August 20, 1987
    Released: April 19, 2006
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    The interrelations among the discharge flow rate, the mixing power and the mixing time in the fully turbulent range in mixing vessels are investigated experimentally with paddles and baffle plates of various dimensions covering from non-baffled to fully baffled conditions. The discharge flow rate number is correlated as a function of the paddle dimensions and the baffle plate dimensions. The relations between the discharge flow rate number and the power number under incomplete baffle conditions are obtained in two cases. If the baffle condition level is fixed, the power number is proportional to the discharge flow rate number for the various paddles. If the paddle is fixed, the power number is proportional to the square of the discharge flow rate number for various baffle conditions. The mixing time is proportional to the time required to circulate the discharged liquid once, and the number of times of circulation to reach mixing is correlated with paddle dimensions, regardless of baffle conditions.
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  • KENJI HASHIMOTO, MUNEKI YAMADA, YOSHIHITO SHIRAI, SHUJI ADACHI
    1987 Volume 20 Issue 4 Pages 405-410
    Published: August 20, 1987
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Continuous glucose/NaCl separation was successfully performed by using a simulated moving-bed adsorber packed with ion-retardant resin. Two kinds of mathematical models, i.e. an intermittent moving-bed model and a continuous moving-bed model, were proposed to calculate concentration profiles in the adsorber where the adsorption isotherms of the first component (NaCl) and the second component (glucose) are represented respectively by the Langmuir equation and by a linear equation. The validity of the calculation methods proposed was experimentally confirmed.
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  • TAKESHI KATAOKA, TADAAKI NISHIKI, MASAO YAMAUCHI, YAN ZHONG
    1987 Volume 20 Issue 4 Pages 410-415
    Published: August 20, 1987
    Released: April 19, 2006
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    The continuous permeation of metal ions in a countercurrent column was simulated in order to develop a continuous separation process with the liquid surfactant membrane technique. In the simulation, an axial dispersion model was applied for a continuous phase. For the permeation of metal ion in a dispersed phase, an approximate model was adopted in which the external diffusion around the dispersed phase, the diffusion through a peripheral thin oil layer in the dispersed phase and the extraction reaction at the interface between the continuous and dispersed phases were taken into account. The observed concentration distributions of metal ions in the column reported by Marr et al. were satisfactorily simulated by the models applied and by use of the conventional relations for liquid-liquid extraction.
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  • MASANORI INUZUKA, HIROSHI ISHIKAWA, RINICHIRO SUGIYAMA, IKUHO YAMADA, ...
    1987 Volume 20 Issue 4 Pages 415-418
    Published: August 20, 1987
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • IKUHO YAMADA, HIDEKI MORI, YOSHIHITO KATO, AHMET TUNCER ERCIYES, SETSU ...
    1987 Volume 20 Issue 4 Pages 418-420
    Published: August 20, 1987
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • KEN-ICHI KIKUCHI, MASANORI NIYAMA, TAKUO SUGAWARA, HIROYASU OHASHI
    1987 Volume 20 Issue 4 Pages 421-423
    Published: August 20, 1987
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • YOSHINORI ADACHI, HIDEZUMI SUGIE
    1987 Volume 20 Issue 4 Pages 424-426
    Published: August 20, 1987
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • YOSHIO NAKANO, HIROHITO NARUOKA, SHIGETAKA YAMAMOTO
    1987 Volume 20 Issue 4 Pages 426-430
    Published: August 20, 1987
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • KAORU ONOE, TAKESHI KAWASAKI, TADASHI SHIROTSUKA
    1987 Volume 20 Issue 4 Pages 430-434
    Published: August 20, 1987
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • IKURU TOYODA, NORIHIKO ADACHI, SATORU KATO, JUNJIRO KAWASAKI
    1987 Volume 20 Issue 4 Pages 434-437
    Published: August 20, 1987
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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