JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF JAPAN
Print ISSN : 0021-9592
Volume 21 , Issue 4
Showing 1-24 articles out of 24 articles from the selected issue
  • MIKIO KONNO, TAKENORI MUTO, SHOZABURO SAITO
    1988 Volume 21 Issue 4 Pages 335-338
    Published: August 20, 1988
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    An attempt was made to establish the coalescence frequency of dispersed drops in an agitated tank. In experiments, transient drop size distributions were measured during the processes of drop coalescence after a stepwise reduction of impeller speed. The transient drop size distributions were calculated from the population balance equation for dispersed drops by applying a previously proposed equation for drop breakup and assuming some different functional forms for coalescence frequency. From comparison between calculated and experimental distributions, a functional form of coalescence frequency was determined which adequately correlates transient drop size distributions with the breakup frequency equation. It was also shown that the equations for coalescence and breakup frequencies successfully predict transient drop size distributions in drop dispersion processes.
    Download PDF (301K)
  • TAMOTSU HANZAWA, YOSHIKAZU NOGUCHI, YUUJI OKUBO, KUNIO KATO
    1988 Volume 21 Issue 4 Pages 339-345
    Published: August 20, 1988
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    To investigate the mass transfer phenomenon in a barrel-type epitaxial reactor, air was made to flow upward or downward in the annular space between two vertical concentric cylinders. A carbon cylinder placed in a part of the inner tube was burned by air in a mass transfer rate control region. The reactant concentration distribution was measured in the annular space and the coefficient of mass transfer from the inner tube was obtained.
    The effects of Re, Gr, De/l and rw/rs on the mass transfer coefficient were investigated. Empirical equations for the mass transfer coefficient in a barrel-type epitaxial reactor were obtained.
    The growth rate of silicon for the H2-SiCl4 system was calculated from these equations at 1473 K in the case of upflow gas or downflow gas. The local growth rate in this reactor was determined.
    Download PDF (429K)
  • TADASHI HANO, TAKAAKI OHTAKE, KAZUMI TAKAGI
    1988 Volume 21 Issue 4 Pages 345-351
    Published: August 20, 1988
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The demulsification kinetics of W/O emulsion in a high A.C. electric field was investigated by using a batch cylindrical demulsifier in which a glass-sealed electrode was placed above a grounded copper disk electrode. The effects of emulsion preparation conditions (oil-phase viscosity, water drop size, water-phase holdup and surfactant concentration) and demulsifying conditions (agitation speed and temperature) on the demulsification rates were examined experimentally while keeping the applied voltage constant. The demulsification rates varied considerably with slight change of these conditions. The rate equation that expressed the above contributions in suitable functional forms gave satisfactory agreement with observed rates over a wide range of experimental conditions. Based on comparison with thermal demulsification without electric field, the accelerating effect of temperature rise was thought to be caused by the decrease of oil-phase viscosity and emulsion stability. Mixing of the demulsifier contents during the operation was found to be effective in promoting demulsification together with temperature rise.
    Download PDF (493K)
  • ISAMU KASHIKI, AKIRA SUZUKI
    1988 Volume 21 Issue 4 Pages 352-356
    Published: August 20, 1988
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The influence of pH on the operating conditions of polycation/polyanion mixed ACFs was studied. Water clarification experiments on quartz sand suspensions under varying pH were carried out by using ACFs formed from polyelectrolytes. In the case of an ACF where polycation and polyanion were both strongly ionizable polyelectrolytes, the variation of pH produced no significant effect except for a charge reversal of the suspended solid at the isoelectric point (i.e.p.). Sudden change in the flocculating efficiency takes place at the point where the polycation and the polyanion which are to form an ACF are equal in number of ionizable functional groups (nc = na). In the case of an ACF containing weak polyelectrolyte(s), the situation appeared to be quite different; the pH showed appreciable effects not only at the i.e.p. but also at a point far from the i.e.p. It was found, however, that the results can be explained in quite the same manner as before, if we take into account the variation in degree of dissociation of weak polyelectrolyte(s); the pH where the sudden change in the flocculating efficiency was observed simply corresponds to the point where the polycation and the polyanion are the same in number of really ionized functional groups.
    Download PDF (404K)
  • MASAMICHI KAMIHIRA, ICHIROU KAWAKUBO, MASAYUKI TANIGUCHI, SHINJI IIJIM ...
    1988 Volume 21 Issue 4 Pages 357-362
    Published: August 20, 1988
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Four hybridoma cell lines that secreted monoclonal antibodies against thermostable α-amylase produced by a recombinant Escherichia coli were established. One of the clones, designated 16-3F, was quite stable with good growth in DF•ITES serum-free medium and high production of the antibody. Cell growth was independent of insulin, ethanolamine and selenite, but it strongly depended on transferrin. In the serum-free media the specific antibody production rate was almost constant irrespective of cell growth. Repeated batch culture in DF medium was found to be promising for antibody production after cell density was increased in DF•ITES medium. The affinity constant between the antibody and the antigen measured by a solid-phase ELISA was 1.3 × 108dm3/mol. The antibody did not bind four kinds of α-amylase derived from other organisms.
    Download PDF (507K)
  • KATSUTOSHI INOUE, YOSHINARI BABA, YOSHIHIRO NAKASHIMA
    1988 Volume 21 Issue 4 Pages 363-368
    Published: August 20, 1988
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The kinetics of solvent extraction of copper(II) from aqueous sodium chloride solution with 2-ethylhexanal oxime in toluene was investigated, along with the aqueous distribution and the interfacial adsorption equilibrium of the extractant. 2-Ethylhexanal oxime was found to have rather high aqueous solubility and interfacial activity. The extraction rate was found to have a first-order dependence with respect to the concentration of neutral copper(II)-dichloro complex, CuCl2, and a second-order dependence with respect to that of the extractant. From these concentration dependencies of the reactant species, the extraction rate was inferred to be controlled by desorption of the final 1:2 metal:reagent complex from the interface brought about by substitution with the extractant molecule.
    Download PDF (436K)
  • WEI-MING LU, CHING-JUNG CHUANG
    1988 Volume 21 Issue 4 Pages 368-375
    Published: August 20, 1988
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Fluid flow between a rotating disk and a stationary septum such as that in a rotating disk dynamic filter was studied theoretically and experimentally. The Navier-Stokes equations were solved in the laminar flow region of Re⟨104 under reasonable fluid permeation rates through the stationary disk. The velocity profiles obtained by numerical calculation agree very well with the results determined by LDA measurement. Distributions of shear stress acting on the rotating disk and stationary septum are also presented in this study.
    Download PDF (612K)
  • HIROKAZU NISHITANI, YOSHINORI KUTSUWA, Komi SHIMIZU, EIICHI KUNUGITA
    1988 Volume 21 Issue 4 Pages 375-381
    Published: August 20, 1988
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Any heat exchanger network has an inherent region of tolerance for variations in the overall heat transfer coefficients. A simple rule on shift of the inherent region of tolerance by redesign of each heat transfer area has been extracted from the characteristics of the system model. This property allows development of a graphical design method for a flexible heat exchanger network with a specified region of required tolerance. The design method is an iterative one composed of a feasibility test of the proposed design for the specified region of required tolerance and a noninferiority test of the design for optimality. As an illustration, a noninferior solution with feasibility in the specified orthotope was effectively obtained by the proposed design method for acyclic or cyclic heat exchanger networks.
    Download PDF (545K)
  • TAKAO TSUKADA, NOBUYUKI IMAISHI, MITSUNORI HOZAWA
    1988 Volume 21 Issue 4 Pages 381-387
    Published: August 20, 1988
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    For a silicon CZ crystal puller, the effect of an annular radiation shield on the temperature profile in the melt and crystal and on the shape of the melt/crystal interface was studied theoretically by use of the finite element analysis based on the conduction-dominated model.
    It was found that a radiation shield of an appropriate shape and located at an optimum position in the furnace can make the interface shape less convex to the crystal and can reduce the input power to the furnace at all stages of crystal growth in comparison with operation without a shield. Also, use of a radiation shield increases the pull rate, i.e. the productivity of the CZ puller, because the axial temperature gradient near the melt/crystal interface becomes steeper.
    Download PDF (523K)
  • KOICHI ASANO, IZUMI TANIGUCHI, KAZUHIDE MAEDA, HITOSHI KOSUGE
    1988 Volume 21 Issue 4 Pages 387-393
    Published: August 20, 1988
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A new method for unsteady simultaneous measurements of velocities and diameters of an evaporating volatile liquid drop was proposed by using an optical method with application of a microcomputer technique. Unsteady measurements of the drag coefficient and dimensionless diffusion flux of a pentane drop falling freely in air at atmospheric pressure in intermediate temperature ranges were made and compared with the theoretical ones proposed in our previous papers. The behavior of a volatile drop falling freely in air was well explained by a simulation technique with due consideration to the high mass flux effect.
    Download PDF (472K)
  • Kozo KOIDE, MOTOHIKO KIMURA, HIDEKAZU NITTA, HIROKAZU KAWABATA
    1988 Volume 21 Issue 4 Pages 393-399
    Published: August 20, 1988
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The flow rate QL of circulating liquid was measured by the heat-pulse method. It was found that QL increased with increasing liquid viscosity. In a h''quid where bubble coalescence was not hindered, the gas holdup in the annulus decreased and therefore QL increased.
    Empirical equations for gas holdups in the draught tube and the pressure drop due to flow reversals, necessary for estimating QL, were proposed.
    Download PDF (522K)
  • NAOTSUGU ITOH, YUJI SHINDO, KENJI HARAYA, TOSHIKATSU HAKUTA
    1988 Volume 21 Issue 4 Pages 399-404
    Published: August 20, 1988
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A membrane reactor, which is a double-tubular reactor equipped with a selective membrane tube as the inner tube, was proposed. Such a reactor makes it possible to obtain a product yield of a reversible reaction beyond its equilibrium value by continuous removal of the products during reaction.
    A microporous glass tube was employed as the selective membrane, through which gases permeate almost according to Knudsen''s law. Experiments in the dehydrogenation of cyclohexane to benzene as a model reaction were carried out, using the membrane reactor under atmospheric pressure in the range of 453-493 K. It was shown experimentally and theoretically that a marked increase in conversion over that at equilibrium can be achieved.
    Download PDF (427K)
  • KENJI TAKAHASHI, HIDEO TSURUGA, KAZUO ENDOH
    1988 Volume 21 Issue 4 Pages 405-410
    Published: August 20, 1988
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    An experimental investigation was performed to study the in-line forces acting on oscillating bluff bodies -a sphere, a cylinder and a disc- in a fluid flow. The energy dissipations calculated with fluid resistance were well correlated by the following correlation regardless of body shape over the whole range investigated.
    E2/3fv=E2/3f+E2/3v
    where Efv, Ef and Ev are energy dissipations for the oscillating body in a fluid flow, for the stationary body in a fluid flow and for the oscillating body in a liquid at rest.
    Download PDF (345K)
  • KENJI TAKESHITA, ASASHI KITAMOTO
    1988 Volume 21 Issue 4 Pages 411-417
    Published: August 20, 1988
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The moles of CO2 absorbed into an amine-nonaqueous solvent mixture were measured by using the stirred-cell method. The test solutions were the mixtures of amine such as butylamine, tert-butylamine, dibutylamine, diethylamine and dipropylamine, and solvents such as octane, triethylamine and methanol.
    The equilibria of the reactions between CO2 and amine in nonaqueous solvent were studied by examining the pressure dependency of the absorption of CO2 at lower temperatures, and could be described by the following reactions:
    CO2(1)+R2NH⇔R2NCO2H (1)
    R2NCO2H+R2NH⇔R2NCO2-R2NH2+ (2)
    R2NCO2H+R2NH⇔R2NCO2-+R2NH2+ (3)
    where R is the alkyl group.
    The equilibrium constants, K1, K2 and K3, were estimated simultaneously by the method of least squares with respect to the pressure dependency of the absorption of CO2.
    The equilibria of the reactions in a nonpolar solvent were mainly described by Eqs. (1) and (2). Those in a polar solvent were described by Eqs. (1) and (3). The proposed reactions, Eqs. (1) to (3), were supported by enthalpies estimated from the Arrhenius plot of the equilibrium constant.
    Download PDF (479K)
  • MASAO SAMBUICHI, HIDEO NAKAKURA, KUNIHISA OSASA
    1988 Volume 21 Issue 4 Pages 418-423
    Published: August 20, 1988
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Batchwise centrifugal filtration and constant-pressure filtration are compared from the viewpoint of cake structure. To correlate the filtration resistance with a pressure as a unique function, it is essential to account for the sedimentation behavior and to use the average compressive pressure.
    By using the average compressive pressure as a parameter, convenient and approximate calculating methods are proposed to predict a centrifugal filtration process from the data of constant-pressure filtration. If the procedures of compression permeability tests and theoretical calculations are considered to be tedious, the predicted results can stand comparison with the experimental or precisely calculated results from the compression permeability data. An example of predicted centrifugal filtration process is shown for a practical centrifuge.
    Download PDF (445K)
  • YASUO HATATE, KOHJI OHMAGARI, ATSUSHI IKARI, KAZUO KONDO, DESMOND F. K ...
    1988 Volume 21 Issue 4 Pages 424-425
    Published: August 20, 1988
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (143K)
  • MASAKUNI MATSUOKA, YUKIKO HITOKOTO
    1988 Volume 21 Issue 4 Pages 426-428
    Published: August 20, 1988
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (256K)
  • FUMIYA YOSHIDA, MANABU YAMAGUCHI, TAKASHI KATAYAMA
    1988 Volume 21 Issue 4 Pages 428-430
    Published: August 20, 1988
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (204K)
  • NOBUYUKI TOKUNAGA, HIROAKI OSHIYAMA, TOMOSHIGE NITTA, TAKASHI KATAYAMA
    1988 Volume 21 Issue 4 Pages 431-433
    Published: August 20, 1988
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (198K)
  • HIROTAKE KATAYAMA
    1988 Volume 21 Issue 4 Pages 433-436
    Published: August 20, 1988
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (263K)
  • KIYOHIKO NAKASAKI, TAKEJI MURAI, TETSUO AKIYAMA
    1988 Volume 21 Issue 4 Pages 436-438
    Published: August 20, 1988
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (223K)
  • YUTAKA IKUSHIMA, MASAHIKO ARAI, KIYOTAKA HATAKEDA, SHOTA ITO, NORIO SA ...
    1988 Volume 21 Issue 4 Pages 439-441
    Published: August 20, 1988
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (241K)
  • HIROTSUGU HATTORI, TOMOO YAMAUCHI, SEIICHI TANABE, HIDEOMI MATSUDA
    1988 Volume 21 Issue 4 Pages 441-443
    Published: August 20, 1988
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (216K)
  • KATSUTO OTAKE, TOMOYA TSUJI, MIKIO KONNO, SHOZABURO SAITO
    1988 Volume 21 Issue 4 Pages 443-445
    Published: August 20, 1988
    Released: April 19, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (164K)
feedback
Top