JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF JAPAN
Print ISSN : 0021-9592
Volume 4 , Issue 3
Showing 1-17 articles out of 17 articles from the selected issue
  • KUNIO NAGAHAMA, MITSUHO HIRATA
    1971 Volume 4 Issue 3 Pages 205-210
    Published: October 10, 1971
    Released: April 26, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Vapor-liquid equilibrium data for the binary systems methyl acetate-methanol and methyl acetate-water were determined at 5.78 atm, 8.66 atm, and 11.57 atm under nitrogen pressure. These data were correlated by Wilson s and Scatchard s equations. In both correlations the average deviations in the predicted results were fairly small for the system methyl acetate-methanol but not for the system methyl acetate-water.
    The effect of pressure on the azeotrope formed was represented by two sets of empirical equations.
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  • KATSUJI NODA, KATSUFUMI INOUE, KURAJI SATO, KOSUKE TANAKA, KIYOHARU IS ...
    1971 Volume 4 Issue 3 Pages 210-213
    Published: October 10, 1971
    Released: April 26, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Ternary liquid-liquid equilibrium data for the systems benzene-sodium-ammonia and cyclohexene-sodium-ammonia were measured at 20°C. A method for prediction of the mutual solubility of sparingly soluble mixtures in the ternary liquid-liquid equilibria was proposed by the application of Ishida''s correlation using the data of the ternary liquidliquid equilibria. On the basis of the above results, a point at which solid and heterogeneous liquids are in equilibrium was determined.
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  • YOSHIO YOKOYAMA, GIHEE KONNO
    1971 Volume 4 Issue 3 Pages 213-216
    Published: October 10, 1971
    Released: April 26, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A method of general applicability and reasonable accuracy for the determination of the dissociation pressure of quinolclathrate is proposed.
    The attainment of equilibrium is remarkably accelerated by gas circulation and by the addition of liquid to the gas-solid system.
    The dissociation pressures of sulfur dioxide-quinoklathrate were determined in a temperature range of 0°C to 60°C, and ΔH°298, ΔG°298 and ΔS°298 were calculated.
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  • NAOYA YOSHIOKA, KITARO ADACHI
    1971 Volume 4 Issue 3 Pages 217-220
    Published: October 10, 1971
    Released: April 26, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    For the boundary value problem for creeping flow of a fluid, called "a generalized Newtonian fluid", which is defined by the constitutive relations τij= 2η (IIε, IIIεij, the uniqueness of its solution are proved, and two equivalent variational problems are formulated. This fluid contains plastic fluids. The flow field, therefore, may consist of flow regions and stationary regions, or may include surfaces of discontinuous velocity. In stationary regions the stress field is not unique.
    Present work is a partial extention and development of studies by Hill and Prager.
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  • NAOYA YOSHIOKA, KITARO ADACHI
    1971 Volume 4 Issue 3 Pages 221-226
    Published: October 10, 1971
    Released: April 26, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The variational principles for creeping flow of non-Newtonian fluids are utilized with considerable success when the common value of the functionals in the actual state is connected with that of an important unknown. Two lines are examined. The one is to extend the results given by Hill for a Newtonian fluid to those for a non-Newtonian fluid, and the other is to extend the idea used by Haddow for visco-plastic torsion of a prismatic bar to the general case.
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  • TETSU WAKABAYASHI, DAIZO KUNII
    1971 Volume 4 Issue 3 Pages 226-230
    Published: October 10, 1971
    Released: April 26, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Experimental studies were carried out in a gas-solid fluidized bed with a diameter of 20 cm, into which highly humid air was sent to form successive single bubbles larger than 4 cm by use of a solenoid valve.
    Overall rate constant of mass transfer between single bubble and solids in emulsion was found to decrease with increasing bubble diameter. Comparison of the above experimental data with a theoretical equation proposed by Kunii and Levenspiel taking account of the solids dispersed in bubble showed that the contribution of the dispersed solids was nearly controlling and that most of the mass transfer between bubble and solids in the above fluidized bed was carried out by solids dispersed in bubble, even though the volume fraction of the dispersed solids to the bubble was as small as 4×10-4.
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  • MASASHI UNO, HITOSHI HIRAIWA, YASUO HIROSE, MITSUHO HIRATA
    1971 Volume 4 Issue 3 Pages 231-238
    Published: October 10, 1971
    Released: April 26, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A new plate-to-plate calculation procedure for extractive distillation is proposed, the characteristics of which are the following three points. First, when the liquid composition in the enriching section becomes negative in the course of trial calculations, the composition is set at a small positive value. Second, the idea is introduced of solvent feed plate matching instead of conventional feed plate matching. Third, the θ-Z method of convergence is further modified by using the new parameter Zp.
    The merits of the present method are as follows; l) solutions obtained satisfy the rule of degrees of freedom for an extractive distillation column. 2) it is usable for any non-ideal system. 3) no experience in distillation calculation is required to assume initial values. 4) no special calculation for very small amounts of components is necessary. 5) composition profile obtained here gives a strict solution for the system.
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  • TERUKATSU MIYAUCHI
    1971 Volume 4 Issue 3 Pages 238-245
    Published: October 10, 1971
    Released: April 26, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    On the above subject the minimum Sherwood number is obtained by modelling a packed bed. From dimensional reasoning of the basic equations for flow of fluid and sealer transport, mass transfer process in steady Stokes flow is shown to be divided into two regimes of molecular diffusion controlling and of developing concentration boundary layer flow. The latter is observed only for liquid systems. The Sherwood number in the regimes is a sole function of the Peclet number for geometrically similar beds. By increasing the flow rate further, flow of fluid goes into the regime of developing laminar boundary layer flow, where mass transfer behaves according to the Carberry type formula. iDh vs. Reh plot of gaseous film coefficients shows, for 2 ≤ Reh ≤ 20, anomalous behaviour which depends on the magnitude of Ef. This anomaly is shown to be inherent only in dilute beds, and to come from flow transition.
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  • KAKUSABURO ONDA, EIZO SADA, KATSUROKU TAKAHASHI, TETSUI SUETOSHI, CHIK ...
    1971 Volume 4 Issue 3 Pages 245-250
    Published: October 10, 1971
    Released: April 26, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The gas absorption rates in expanding and shrinking surfaces are measured with CO2- water and CO2-NaOH aqueous solution systems by using a liquid-film type absorber in which liquid flows along conical, reverse conical or hemispherical surfaces. The experimental results are compared with three theoretical models. MODEL II (stretch model) agrees best with the experiments in all cases.
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  • SHIGEKI TOYAMA, MITSUTAKA KAWAMURA
    1971 Volume 4 Issue 3 Pages 251-256
    Published: October 10, 1971
    Released: April 26, 2006
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    A heating process to produce lightweight aggregate from a mixture of fly ash and pulp waste liquor was studied from the standpoint of reaction kinetics, involving the structure of pellet matrix, reaction kinetics, and the peculiar properties of lightweight aggregate.
    The results indicate that the reaction taking part in the bloating is the reduction of Fe2O3 to release oxygen. The relationship between reaction progress and feasibility of the bloating suggest that the preferable heating method is to calcine the pellet in such a way as to form as much grey zone as possible. The gray zone is the matrix where some portion of Fe2O3 is reduced, and the extent of reduction can be estimated from the proposed reaction model.
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  • SHIRO MATSUMOTO, YOICHI TAKASHIMA
    1971 Volume 4 Issue 3 Pages 257-263
    Published: October 10, 1971
    Released: April 26, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The standard deviation of sprayed drop size distribution was investigated by applying a simple stochastic model to the disintegration process of a liquid sheet. The disintegration of the liquid sheet was considered to start from the detached sheet which is cut off by the most unstable wave and which has a width equivalent to half the wavelength. Then the disintegration process was assumed to be like a random walk model in which the probability of disintegration is unchanging regardless of the size of liquid pieces and in which all pieces have the same chance of disintegration.
    The logarithmic standard deviation and the relative mean size were obtained as a function of Reynolds number by using experimental data on a fan nozzle. The original size of breaking liquid sheet was determined from the thickness measured by the optical interference method and from the width by stroboscopic photographs. As a result, higher Reynolds numbers gave smaller mean size of liquid drop and lower standard deviation.
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  • MOMPEI SHIRATO, TOSHIRO MURASE, MASAKAZU NEGAWA, HIROMITSU MORIDERA
    1971 Volume 4 Issue 3 Pages 263-268
    Published: October 10, 1971
    Released: April 26, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The internal mechanisms of expression operations are analysed in view of the variations of flow rate through filter-cake and of the modified consolidation coefficient through consolidated cake, and basic equations for consolidation processes are presented in this paper.
    Expression operations are classified into three types according to the relations of pressure and flow rate to time. The equations for flow variations in filter-cakes are numerically solved on the basis of the so-called modern filtration theory. The generalized basic equations for consolidation are solved by using the calculus of finite difference with variable coefficients. It has been demonstrated that the operational variables for expression operations can be more reasonably determined from calculations based upon these numerical solutions rather than predicted by the approximate methods formerly reported.
    Favourable coincidence between theory and experiments are assured under constant pressure, constant rate and variable pressure-variable rate conditions.
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  • HIDEHIRO KUMAZAWA, NORIYOSHI MORITA
    1971 Volume 4 Issue 3 Pages 269-274
    Published: October 10, 1971
    Released: April 26, 2006
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    For a packed bed of spherical catalyst pellets, where the intraparticle diffusion resistance is negligible at steady-state operation, frequency transfer function for concentration perturbation of reactant for n-th order reaction kinetics is derived in view of the effects of longitudinal dispersion in moving phase, resistance to diffusion in film on outer surface of pellets, and resistance to intraparticle diffusion according to bimodal pore model. From this function, other frequency transfer functions for various cases are systematically derived. The effects of mass transfer processes on gain and phase shift are examined from numerical evaluations of derived frequency transfer functions for typical values of parameters. From the results, the effects of mass transfer processes on the estimated values of order of reaction and Thiele modulus are discussed.
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  • TAKEHIKO FURUSAWA, DAIZO KUNII
    1971 Volume 4 Issue 3 Pages 274-280
    Published: October 10, 1971
    Released: April 26, 2006
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    Multiple steady states of a catalytic reaction were studied experimentally in the hydrogenation of ethylene on a single pellet of Adkins catalyst, obtaining apparent kinetic expression of the reaction. Mechanism of the formation of sigmoida! shape of heaf generation curve was investigated. This has been attributed to the mass and heat transfer resistances across the film as well as in the particle. However the present experiments have shown that the change of apparent activation energy due to adsorption term should be emphasized more in explaining the heat generation curves.
    The effect of initial condition on steady state activity is also discussed. It was found that this bistability could be attributed to thermal instability combined with concentration stability resulting from the Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism.
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  • HAJIMU UYEHA, YUTAKA HAGIHARA
    1971 Volume 4 Issue 3 Pages 281-283
    Published: October 10, 1971
    Released: April 26, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Measurements of the vapor-liquid relationship for E.H.P.-mT.C.P. system are performed by use of an agitator vessel at three residual pressures (3.5 × 10-3 mmHg, 1.0 ×10-1 mmHg and 3.5×10-1 mmHg) and two liquid surface temperatures (130°C and 160°C). Independent of residual air pressure, at liquid surface temperature of 130°C this system is regarded as an ideal solution. But at liquid surface temperature of 160°C, the deviation from ideal behavior increases as the residual air pressure is lowered.
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  • AIM A. SONIN, RONALD F. PROBSTEIN
    1971 Volume 4 Issue 3 Pages 283-285
    Published: October 10, 1971
    Released: April 26, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Kitamoto and Takashima1, 2) have recently reported experimental data and some numerical computations for limiting current density in an electrodialysis-type system, under laminar as well as turbulent flow conditions. The purpose of this note is, first, to point out that the authors have not observed that their data for laminar flow is in good agreement with a previously published analytical theory3), reference to which is made in Ref. 2; second, to question their turbulent flow model for the correlation between concentration and electric field fluctuations; and last to raise some points concerning both the laminar and turbulent numerical calculations.
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  • ASASHI KITAMOTO, YOICHI TAKASHIMA
    1971 Volume 4 Issue 3 Pages 285-288
    Published: October 10, 1971
    Released: April 26, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Making a further study with respect to some comments from Profs. Sonin and Probstein, we found few minor mistakes in our previous conclusions in laminar region, which are corrected in this paper. However, we confirmed that the outline and the main conclusions should leave as they are, although there still exists question on the physical meaning of the term CiΔφ1, which is related to the ionic mass transport in turbulent flow.
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