Editors: Ryuichi Egashira (Tokyo Institute of Technology) Jun Fukai (Kyushu University) Choji Fukuhara (Shizuoka University) Takayuki Hirai (Osaka University) Masahiko Hirao (The University of Tokyo) Jun-ichi Horiuchi (Kitami Institute of Technology) Eiji Iritani (Nagoya University) Yoshinori Itaya (Gifu University) Hideo Kameyama (Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology) Masahiro Kino-oka (Osaka University) Toshinori Kojima (Seikei University) In-Beum Lee (Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTEC)) Kouji Maeda (University of Hyogo) Shin Mukai (Hokkaido University) Akinori Muto (Osaka Prefecture University) Nobuyoshi Nakagawa (Gunma University) Hiroyasu Ogino (Osaka Prefecture University) Naoto Ohmura (Kobe University) Mitsuhiro Ohta (The University of Tokushima) Yuji Sakai (Kogakuin University) Noriaki Sano (Kyoto University) Masahiro Shishido (Yamagata University) Richard Lee Smith, Jr. (Tohoku University) Hiroshi Suzuki (Kobe University) Shigeki Takishima (Hiroshima University) Yoshifumi Tsuge (Kyushu University) Tomoya Tsuji (Nihon University) Da-Ming Wang (National Taiwan University) Yoshiyuki Yamashita (Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology) Miki Yoshimune (National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST))
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AIMS AND SCOPE:
Journal of Chemical Engineering of Japan, an official publication of the Society of Chemical Engineers, Japan, is dedicated to providing timely original research results in the broad field of chemical engineering ranging from fundamental principles to practical applications. Subject areas of this journal are listed below. Research works presented in the journal are considered to have significant and lasting value in chemical engineering.
Physical Properties and Physical Chemistry Transport Phenomena and Fluid Engineering Particle Engineering Separation Engineering Thermal Engineering Chemical Reaction Engineering Process Systems Engineering and Safety Biochemical Food and Medical Engineering Micro and Nano Systems Materials Engineering and Interfacial Phenomena Energy Environment Engineering Education
A method for estimating Wilson parameters on the basis of solubility parameters and molar volumes previously proposed has been applied to correlate the vapor–liquid equilibria of alcohol+aliphatic chloride binary systems. The correlation performances are examined and discussed.
Two-dimensional particle image velocimetry (PIV) and digital image analysis are used to quantify the hydrodynamics of gas–liquid flow in a cubic tank with a flat square base (length T=230 mm). The fluid is stirred by a half elliptical disk turbine (HEDT) of diameter D=77 mm. Flow fields at 8 different gas holdups from 2.24 to 5.78% are investigated. The gas is injected into the tank through a syringe needle. The measurements are taken in a plane which is 2 mm from the wall and the radial velocity could be ignored compared to the axial and tangential velocity. Therefore, the flow field is considered to be two-dimensional. The results show that the liquid mean velocity and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) decrease with an increase in gas holdup, and the turbulent kinetic energy dissipation first increases, then decreases with an increase in gas holdup.
This paper reports the removal of organic sulfur compounds and H2S by a column process from a simulated gasoline solution and a real hydrodesulfurized gasoline sample with a low sulfur content (<5 ppm). In this process, a Ce(IV)-loaded Y-zeolite (CeY-S) is used as the adsorbent for the removal of thiophene from the simulated gasoline solution and sulfur compounds from the hydrodesulfurized gasoline. The CeY-S adsorbent shows strong adsorption ability for various organic sulfur compounds and H2S in the real hydrodesulfurized gasoline. A granulated CeY-S adsorbent is developed for the column desulfurization process. A high temperature is preferred for the effective removal of the sulfur compounds by the granulated adsorbent, which increases the rate of the adsorption reaction. When granulated CeY-S is used, the amount of real hydrodesulfurized gasoline desulfurized is 66 times the bed volume, and the sulfur content of gasoline is reduced from 1.67 to 0.1 ppm. A thiophene adsorption–desorption cycle experiment indicates that after the sulfur adsorption, the CeY-S adsorbent can be regenerated by calcination in air at temperature above 450°C and that adsorbent structure is stable during repeated adsorption–desorption cycles.
The adsorption behaviors of two types of commercial porous resins containing hydrated zirconium and cerium oxide, whose commercial names are READF-(PG) and READF-(HG), respectively, have been investigated relative to fluoride from aqueous solution. The adsorbents were characterized by XRD, EDX and surface area analyzer. Fluoride adsorption was found to be strongly pH dependent and optimum adsorption on both types of resins was observed at pH 2–4. The measurement of adsorption kinetics of fluoride demonstrated a fast adsorption process. The isotherm experiments showed Langmuir type monolayer adsorption. The complete removal of fluoride from trace concentration can be achieved using 4 g/L of the resins tested under the mentioned experimental condition. The maximum uptake capacity of the READF-(HG) and READF-(PG) were evaluated as 2.35 and 2.10 mmol F/g dry resin. The complete desorption of adsorbed fluoride was successfully achieved using a dilute alkali (NaOH) solution. Column adsorption followed by elution demonstrated the possible application of this system in a continuous system.
A method is proposed to determine the ratio of liquid droplets and vapor in the product of an ultrasonically-atomized aqueous ethanol solution. A salt which only enters into droplets is used as a tracer. Since no selective partitioning of salts has been reported between droplets and bulk solution, the amount of liquid turned into droplets is obtained from the change in the amount of salt. Knowing the ratio of the amount of droplets and vapor provides a clue for understanding the separation mechanism of ethanol enrichment in the fog. The ratio varied with the change in ethanol concentration in the feed solution. The ethanol concentration in the fog has been measured to discuss the relation between ethanol enrichment and the ratio. A multiphase model is proposed, where the source of the fog is regarded as shell-bearing bubbles and/or droplets. The basic mechanism of the enrichment is regarded as the surface excess of ethanol at the shell. By combining the amount of those droplets and bubbles, the predicted values of the ratio are obtained, and are compared with the observed values.
The effect of the oxidation inhibitors, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), formaldehyde, and Na2SO3, on the oxidative and thermal degradation and the corrosivity of monoethanolamine (MEA) were investigated, and the products of oxidative and thermal degradation of MEA were analyzed. There was no difference in the CO2 absorption/desorption rates between MEA solutions with and without the oxidation inhibitors. The oxidation inhibitors prevented the oxidative degradation of MEA, and the extent of prevention was in the order EDTA≫formaldehyde>Na2SO3. Among the products of oxidative degradation of MEA in the oxidation condition, formate and acetate were the dominant degradation products, and EDTA decreased the amount of products formed to a greater extent than any other inhibitors. Oxidation inhibitors had no effect on the thermal degradation of MEA, and no oxidation products such as anion species of carboxylic acids (glycolate, formate, acetate, and oxalate) and nitrogen products (nitrite and nitrate) were formed under thermal degradation conditions. The corrosion rate of MEA with the inhibitors was in the order Na2SO3<EDTA<formaldehyde. Na2SO3 and EDTA decreased the corrosion rate of the MEA solution, while formaldehyde slightly increased the corrosion rate.
Large-scale skeletal muscle tissue cultures are often limited by nutrient supplementation and oxygen diffusion. In the present study, we used a hollow-fiber bioreactor system to supply nutrients and oxygen for the cultivation of high cell-density skeletal muscle tissue constructs fabricated by a magnetic force-based tissue engineering technique. C2C12 cells, magnetically-labeled with magnetite cationic liposomes (MCLs), were mixed with a type I collagen solution and seeded into the cell culture space of the hollow-fiber bioreactor. A magnet was then placed underneath the bioreactor to accumulate MCL-labeled cells in the space between the hollow fibers by magnetic force. Perfusion culture was performed using a myogenic differentiation medium for 7 d. Histological observation revealed that high cell-dense and viable tissue constructs containing myotubes were successfully formed. Furthermore, muscle-specific proteins, such as myosin heavy chain and tropomyosin, were detected by western blot, indicating that C2C12 cells underwent myogenic differentiation. These findings indicate that the hollow-fiber bioreactor system is an effective approach for the in vitro culture of large skeletal muscle tissue constructs, fabricated by magnetic force-based tissue engineering.
A direct heat exchange system using zeolite 13X–water working pairs is expected as an effective process to generate steam more than 150°C from water below 100°C. As a basic study, steam at 100°C from water at 80°C was investigated. The effects of the direction of feeding water in the adsorption process were experimentally investigated. The experimental results for the feeding from the bottom show that mass of generated steam reached almost 90% of the theoretical value obtained by heat mass balances. However, the performance, that is, the mass ratio of generated steam to the inlet water was around 6.5% because an abundance of water should be introduced to get contact between zeolite particle and water. Feeding water from the top was, therefore, investigated to increase the performance of steam generation with various nozzle configurations. Although the mass of the product steam was less than that for feeding water from the bottom, the mass ratio was improved to 13% by using 14 nozzles. This is because the nozzle installation enlarged the contact area between water and zeolite with a small amount of water.