JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF JAPAN
Print ISSN : 0021-9592
Volume 6 , Issue 5
Showing 1-17 articles out of 17 articles from the selected issue
  • EIZO SADA, TETSUO MORISUE
    1974 Volume 6 Issue 5 Pages 385-388
    Published: February 28, 1974
    Released: March 27, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Thermodynamics of salt effects on vapor-liquid equilibria is discussed. Empirical activity coefficients of volatile components are defined, and the Gibbs-Duhem equations for ternary systems which contain two volatile components and a non-volatile salt are developed. Furthermore, the salt effects on vapor-liquid equilibria are exactly generalized through chemical potentials and the Gibbs-Duhem equation for the systems.
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  • WATARU EGUCHI, MOTONARI ADACHI, MINORU YONEDA
    1974 Volume 6 Issue 5 Pages 389-396
    Published: February 28, 1974
    Released: March 27, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The overall partition of iodine between air and aqueous solution containing sodium hydroxide is very complicated due to the complex reactions of iodine dissolved in the aqueous phase. The equilibrium constants of the several elementary reactions which influence the overall partition were measured for the range of 10° to 80°C.
    Then the dependencies of the overall partition of iodine upon both temperature and concentration were theoretically analyzed by an approximate method.
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  • ICHIRO MATSUNAGA, TAKASHI KATAYAMA
    1974 Volume 6 Issue 5 Pages 397-401
    Published: February 28, 1974
    Released: March 27, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Vapor-liquid equilibria were determined for propionaldehyde-cyclohexane, propionaldehyde-methanol, and propionaldehyde-methyl ethyl ketone systems at 45.0°C use by of a modified Gillespie still.
    A minimum boiling azeotrope was found to occur at 691.4 mmHg and 0.915 mole fraction of aldehyde for the propionaldehyde-cyclohexane system, and a maximum boiling azeotrope at 326.4 mmHg and 0.126 mole fraction of aldehyde for the propionaldehyde-methanol system. Propionaldehyde-methanol system has a maximum or a minimum in the plot of each activity coefficient versus mole fraction. Propionaldehydemethyl ethyl ketone system is almost an ideal one.
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  • NOBUO MITSUISHI, YOSHIKI AOYAGI
    1974 Volume 6 Issue 5 Pages 402-408
    Published: February 28, 1974
    Released: March 27, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Non-Newtonian fluid flow in an eccentric annulus was studied for high polymer aqueous solutions of CMC, HEC and MC. The macroscopic relations between the pressure drop and the flow rate were found to be in fairly good agreement with the results obtained by application of the conventional variational principle.
    Velocity profiles were measured by a hydrogen bubble method in which photographs were taken of the hydrogen bubbles. The authors observed very interesting secondary flows in the eccentric non-Newtonian fluid flow which may be due to the viscoelastic effect of the high polymer aqueous solution. The authors could not observe such secondary flows for non-Newtonian fluids in a concentric annulus or Newtonian fluids in an eccentric annulus.
    The authors present an equation giving the relation between the flow rate and the pressure drop for the flow of a non-Newtonian fluid in an eccentric annulus in terms of the experimental data for flow in a circular tube.
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  • NOBUO MITSUISHI, YOSHIO MIYAIRI, TOSHIHISA KATAMINE
    1974 Volume 6 Issue 5 Pages 409-414
    Published: February 28, 1974
    Released: March 27, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This paper presents the characteristics of Newtonian heat transfer in an agitated vessel to or from (1) an impeller, (2) a doughnut plate, and (3) a draft tube. The heat transfer to the impeller is 2.5 to 3 times as large as that to the jacketed vessel wall over a wide range of Reynolds numbers. Doughnut plates appear to be useful as a heat exchanger in the region of low Reynolds number. The heating area maybe simply adjusted by changing the number of doughnut plates, and scraping of the plate surfaces is very easy. An agitator with propellers in a draft tube shows a slight decrease in heat transfer rate at high Reynolds numbers. However, it is a good heat exchanger in the range of low Reynolds numbers. For the agitation of highly viscous liquids, an agitator with a helical screw in a draft tube may be very favorable for industrial use.
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  • NOBUO MITSUISHI, YOSHIO MIYAIRI
    1974 Volume 6 Issue 5 Pages 415-420
    Published: February 28, 1974
    Released: March 27, 2006
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    This study deals with non-Newtonian heat transfer with several types of agitators: (1) an agitator with a 2-bladed paddle, (2) an agitator with a helical screw in a draft tube, (3) an agitator with a helical ribbon. The non-Newtonian fluids tested consisted of various concentrations of aqueous solutions of CMC, HEG, PO and SPA. The threeconstant Ellis model was used to characterize the non-Newtonian fluids. By using the non-Newtonian viscosities proposed in this paper, the correlations for non-Newtonian heat transfer in the three types of agitators agree very well with those for Newtonian heat transfer. These experimental results may be valuable in industrial design since only a limited number of such studies are available.
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  • HAKARU MITSUTAKE
    1974 Volume 6 Issue 5 Pages 420-425
    Published: February 28, 1974
    Released: March 27, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The overall coefficient of mass transfer based on liquid concentration, KL, for absorption of bubbles into a liquid flowing down countercurrently has been related to the decrease in volume, area and buoyant force of bubbles in order to establish a theoretical equation for KL. The decrease of KL with increase height of column has been found to be fundamentally influenced by the decrease of V/A and the inclination -(d/dθ) ln(FZ) of the bubbles.
    This work also shows the state of counterdiffusion between carbon dioxide in bubbles and air dissolved in downflowing water, and that air in bubbles can be thought to give the gas-side resistance in the double film theory. It is one of the causes of the decrease of KL when the air content of bubbles increases greatly in cases where the residence time of bubbles in water is comparatively long.
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  • TAKAO KOKUGAN, MASARU SHIMIZU
    1974 Volume 6 Issue 5 Pages 426-432
    Published: February 28, 1974
    Released: March 27, 2006
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    As the concentration of the mixture at the feed position (z=0), C0, is usually different from that of the feed gas, CF, the transport equations were solved under the boundary condition of C=C0 at z=0, to obtain the separation performance in a thermal diffusion column. To check the calculated results, a thermal diffusion column which consists of two concentric vertical cylinders was used3 and separation of the binary gas mixture He-Ar was made.
    From the experimental results, it was found that concentrations of both product and waste (or top and bottom) depend sensitively on the cut, that is, the ratio of enriched product flow rate to the feed flow rate(β), but only slightly on feed position(ζ0).
    The experimental results were in good agreement with the calculated results under the boundary condition of C=C0 at z= 0.
    An engineering method is presented by which the separation characteristics will simply and graphically be obtained.
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  • TADASHI SHIROTSUKA, YOSHINORI KAWASE
    1974 Volume 6 Issue 5 Pages 432-437
    Published: February 28, 1974
    Released: March 27, 2006
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    Approximate expressions of stream functions related to fluid spheres are obtained for external and internal fluids in non-Newtonian systems described by the power law model.
    Motion and mass transfer of fluid spheres in non-Newtonian systems are considered by using these approximate stream functions. Drag coefficient is evaluated by the energetic approximate method. Unsteady mass transfer to fluid spheres is analyzed by use of similarity transformations.
    Comparisons between the present analysis and experimental data available in the literature show good agreement.
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  • MASAYOSHI KOBAYASHI, HARUO KOBAYASHI
    1974 Volume 6 Issue 5 Pages 438-442
    Published: February 28, 1974
    Released: March 27, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The decomposition of nitrous oxide over manganesedioxide was studied by the transient, response method proposed in our previous work. The analysis of response curves showed that the gaseous nitrous oxide decomposed directly on the active sites leaving oxygen on the surface. The amount of oxygen on the surface during the reaction at steady state was larger than the equilibrium amount, and it is suggested that the desorption of oxygen is one of the slower steps in the overall reaction. On the basis of the results obtained by the transient response method, a likely model for the decomposition wasproposed. The rate constants of all elementary steps were determined by the non-linear parameter optimization technique and it was found that the kinetic results were fully consistent with experimental findings.
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  • HIROSHI YANAI, HIROSHI TAKAHASHI, KEIIGHI ISHIYAMA
    1974 Volume 6 Issue 5 Pages 443-446
    Published: February 28, 1974
    Released: March 27, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The activation of various chars by CO2 gas was carried out. Experimental results are summarized as follows. The pores of activated carbon are formed in two steps. In the first step the content of residual volatile matter in the chars has an important influence on the pattern of development of the micropore and in the second step the macropore volume caused by raw materials and/or their subsequent history of heat treatment is the important influence. The more volatile matter a char contains, the higher the reactivity it exhibits, and the faster the rate of micropore growth. Also, the higher the degree of macropore development in the first step, the more it contributes to micropore formation in the subsequent course of gas activation.
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  • KUNIO SHINOHARA, KIMIYASU HAYASHI, TATSUO TANAKA
    1974 Volume 6 Issue 5 Pages 447-453
    Published: February 28, 1974
    Released: March 27, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A new device, the pneumatic escalator, for conveying solids pneumatically was examined from the viewpoint of solids mixing or residence time distribution of particles within a continuous gas-solid contacting apparatus. According to experimental results by tracer technique, the residence time of particles passing through the device could be adjusted by operational variables like solids feed rate, air velocity and inclination angle of the device in addition to material properties of particles and dimensions of the device. Among them, air velocity was found to be effective in controlling the shape of the distribution curve and the mean residence time of particles. The distribution function of residence time was mathematically expressed by applying a complete-mixing model to solids within a cell of the device and a binomial distribution model to solids bypassing flow through the cells. Thus, an appropriate distribution curve of residence time required in each case of gas-solid contact operation can be simulated by changing the operational conditions as well as the dimensions of the pneu-escalator.
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  • TAKEIGHIRO TAKAMATSU, IORI HASHIMOTO, SUTEAKI SHIOYA
    1974 Volume 6 Issue 5 Pages 453-457
    Published: February 28, 1974
    Released: March 27, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A method of determining rational design margin of unit operation in a process is developed by taking account of parameter uncertainties usually involved in actual process system design. Since decision variables which are to be determined in process system design consist of design variables and manipulating variables, design may be estimated rationally by considering admissible ranges of manipulating variables. The method proposed in this paper is applied to design of a simple chemical reaction process with recycle, and the result obtained by this method is compared with that obtained by the method proposed previously by the authors.
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  • V. NARAYANA MURTHY, P. K. SARMA
    1974 Volume 6 Issue 5 Pages 457-459
    Published: February 28, 1974
    Released: March 27, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Ikuho YAMADA, Norimighi MATSUMOTO, Charles D. HOLLAND
    1974 Volume 6 Issue 5 Pages 459-462
    Published: February 28, 1974
    Released: March 27, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • RYUIGHI AOKI, HIROSHI TSUNAKAWA
    1974 Volume 6 Issue 5 Pages 462-464
    Published: February 28, 1974
    Released: March 27, 2006
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  • SETSURO HIRAOKA, RYUZO ITO
    1974 Volume 6 Issue 5 Pages 464-467
    Published: February 28, 1974
    Released: March 27, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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