JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING OF JAPAN
Print ISSN : 0021-9592
Volume 6 , Issue 6
Showing 1-15 articles out of 15 articles from the selected issue
  • TOMOSHIGE NITTA, AKIFUMI TATSUISHI, TAKASHI KATAYAMA
    1974 Volume 6 Issue 6 Pages 475-480
    Published: March 15, 1974
    Released: March 27, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Solubility measurements of nitrogen in two mixed solvents, cyclohexane-iso-octane [1] and n-propanol-iso-octane [2], were performed at 25°C and atmospheric pressure. The experimental "excess quantity" over Henry''s constant averaged in the volume fraction of solvent (lnκ) is slightly positive for both systems. Based upon the solution theory of Flory-Huggins type, the excess quantity lnκ is described by the following three terms; (a) size term based upon the difference of solvent molar volumes (positive), (b) physical interaction term (negative), and (c) association term (negative). For system [1] the association term is zero. Each term is calculated from the characteristic properties of the binary liquid mixture and the molar volume of solute gas, and agreement between the calculated and experimental values for lnκ is very satisfactory. Contribution of term (a) to the excess quantity κ is the largest for the systems investigated. For the solubility of nitrogen in mixture [2] the contribution of the association term (c) to r is smaller than that of term (b), whereas the association term contributes more than 90% in the excess Gibbs energy for the binary mixture [2].
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  • TATSUO KANKI, SATORU IUGHI
    1974 Volume 6 Issue 6 Pages 481-487
    Published: March 15, 1974
    Released: March 27, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Rarefied gas channel flow at a uniform temperature has been studied both theoretically and experimentally by many investigators. However, the analytical solution demonstrating explicitly the behavior of the gas flow, especially in the transition flow region where the well-known Knudsen minimum occurs, has not yet been obtained because of the complexity of the momentum transport by molecular collisions. Nor has the gas flow induced by the thermal stress been fully researched.
    In this paper, the problem of rarefied gas flow with thermal creep in a circular tube is studied, with special reference to the effect of thermal creep on the gas flow. The solution of the Boltzmann equation with the BGK model is obtained by use of the iteration procedure which uses the slip continuum solution as the first guess.
    The volume flow rate of the flow induced by the pressure gradient resulting from the present analysis is in fair agreement with the experimental data in the whole range of the inverse Knudsen number. The solution also gives a fairly good approximation for the thermal creep in consequence of the previous theoretical work.
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  • TOKURO MIZUSHINA, TOSHIRO MARUYAMA, YASUMI SHIOZAKI
    1974 Volume 6 Issue 6 Pages 487-494
    Published: March 15, 1974
    Released: March 27, 2006
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    Pulsating turbulent flow in a tube was studied experimentally. Measured instantaneous profiles of the velocity and the intensity of turbulence can be clearly classified into two groups by means of a certain critical period of pulsation. At longer periods of pulsation, the shapes of the velocity profiles are similar to those for steady flow, while the intensity of turbulent fluctuation does not pulsate ; whereas at shorter periods, the velocity profiles are not similar to those for steady flow, while the intensity of turbulent fluctuation pulsates oppositely to the velocity.
    From measuring the time intervals between bursts in both steady and pulsating turbulent flows, it was clarified that the range of burst periods occurring in pulsating flow was the same as the preferred range of burst periods in steady flow. If the pulsation period is longer than the upper limit of this range, the mean burst period is equal to that of steady flow, but if the pulsation period is included in the range of burst periods for steady flow, the bursting of the same period as the pulsation period dominates.
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  • YUKINARI SATO, KAZUO YAMAMOTO
    1974 Volume 6 Issue 6 Pages 495-502
    Published: March 15, 1974
    Released: March 27, 2006
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    For the last three decades much attention has been focused on Kolmogoroff9s theory for the local structure of the isotropic turbulent field. Many investigators have tried experimental verification of the theory, but their results are considered insufficient. This is mainly due to the fact that, in experimental and industrial apparatus, turbulent Reynolds number Rex of fluid flow is generally not as high as Kolmogoroff assumed in his theory.
    In this study, relative velocity distribution in the isotropic turbulent field at low turbulent Reynolds number (Reλ = 30-100) is measured by hot-wire anemometry, and empirical equations of the velocity distribution are proposed. These equations contain two parameters which represent the characteristics of isotropic turbulence-Reλ and microscale λg of turbulence. Relations between λg and integral scale Ag, velocity-correlation function g(r) and one-dimensional power spectrum E1(k1) can be calculated from these equations. These calculated values agree well with experimental data obtained by many investigators.
    Furthermore, a few examples of the other calculated spectra of turbulence, such as three-dimensional power spectrum E(k) and energy-transfer functions F(k) and S(k), are also shown.
    The empirical equations are considered to be usefully applicable to turbulent flow over a wide range of Reλ, from 30 to 800 or more.
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  • SHIRO MATSUMOTO, KUNIKI SAITO, YOIGHI TAKASHIMA
    1974 Volume 6 Issue 6 Pages 503-507
    Published: March 15, 1974
    Released: March 27, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Various theoretical solutions including the author''s for the thickness of a viscous liquid film on a rotating disk are presented in terms of two dimensionless parameters and are compared with experimental results.
    The film thickness on the disk was measured by a micrometer which is movable with a needle used as a surface detector.
    The numerical solution of the equations as simplified by von Karman''s method and Bruin''s solution agree well with the experimental results in a wide range of operating conditions. Polynomial approximation with orders up to fourth and fifth degree is usable to predict the film thickness.
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  • SHIRO ITO, KOHEI OGAWA
    1974 Volume 6 Issue 6 Pages 507-511
    Published: March 15, 1974
    Released: March 27, 2006
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    Considering the analogical equation for mass transfer with the kinematic energy equation, a new eddy diffusivity is defined in much the same way as the eddy viscosity presented in the previous paper5). Being different from the conventional eddy diffusivity, the newly defined eddy diffusivity can be determined uniquely on the notice point from a single mean concentration gradient to any direction at that point.
    At the transitional region from laminar to turbulent flow of liquid in a circular pipe, further, experimental values of the newly defined eddy diffusivity are obtained by simultaneous measurment of the liquid velocity fluctuations and the concentration fluctuations of injected tracer by electro-chemical techniques.
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  • IKUHO YAMADA, CHARLES D. HOLLAND, SETSURO HIRAOKA, NORIO HOMMA
    1974 Volume 6 Issue 6 Pages 512-517
    Published: March 15, 1974
    Released: March 27, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The concepts of mass and heat transfer are applied to derive the equations of Murphree and vaporization point efficiencies with an approximation in which the linear relationship of vapor-liquid equilibrium is assumed. Characteristics of the efficiencies, including the effects of liquid composition upon the distillation point efficiencies, importance of thermal effects in evaluating the mass transfer coefficient from observed data, and accuracies of the equations are examined with numerical examples of a binary system and a ternary system.
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  • KEI MIYANAMI, KAKUJI TOJO, TAKEO YANO
    1974 Volume 6 Issue 6 Pages 518-522
    Published: March 15, 1974
    Released: March 27, 2006
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    The liquid-phase mixing characteristics of a multistage vibrating-disk column with a concurrent gas-liquid flow are studied by means of a step response method and a moment analysis. The mixing characteristics can be expressed by the back-flow model. The model parameter (the back-flow ratio) is well correlated by a dimensionless equation of the experimental variables. The correlation is definitely affected by the wave form of the disk vibration.
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  • MASAAKI TERAMOTO, KENJI HASHIMOTO, SHINJI NAGATA
    1974 Volume 6 Issue 6 Pages 522-527
    Published: March 15, 1974
    Released: March 27, 2006
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    Theoretical analysis of the selectivity of (m, n)-(p, q) order consecutive gas-liquid reaction is developed based on the film theory. The reaction scheme discussed is as follows: B(l)+A(g)→R(l), rate = k1AmBn ; R(l) + A(g)→S(l), rate = k2APRq. The relations between the yield of an intermediate product R and the conversion of B are numerically calculated for a continuous stirred-tank reactor, and it is shown that Hikita and Asai''s approximate method is satisfactorily extended to this consecutive reaction system. The yield-conversion relations for (m, n) - (m, q) order reaction (i.e. m = p) are closely approximated by those of (1, n) - (1, q) order reaction using a given generalized parameter h1 which corresponds to the Thiele modulus in solid-catalysed gas-phase reactions. In the case of m→p, the effect of diffusion appears even in the slow reaction regime, whereas in the case of m p, diffusion limitation influences the yield only when the reaction in the liquid film is predominant. The reaction factor for (m, n) - (p, q) order reaction is approximated by that for (1, n) - (1, q) order reaction.
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  • EIICHI ONUMA
    1974 Volume 6 Issue 6 Pages 527-531
    Published: March 15, 1974
    Released: March 27, 2006
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    The partition phenomenon in the classification characteristics of Sturtevant-type air classifiers, usually observed in high solid concentration conditions, are studied and analyzed under the assumption of a collision-interference model. Based on the above analysis, the stochastic model by Molerus on classification is modified and a comparison is made between the theoretical fractional recovery curves and those observed for a classifier in operation. Based on all the above investigations, some suggestions on optimization of operating conditions and in the design of closed-circuit grinding systems are made.
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  • GERARD M. VAUGHAN, PETER H. SCOTT, G. ALAN HOLDER
    1974 Volume 6 Issue 6 Pages 532-540
    Published: March 15, 1974
    Released: March 27, 2006
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    A critical appraisal of the inclined plane as a means of simulating trickling filtration operation is made. The requirements for aerobic operation have been discussed. Studies of mass-transfer and reaction which occur in the trickling filtration process have been carried out using glucose as a synthetic pollutant. Attempts have been made to relate the experimental data to mathematical theories. The results show that hydrodynamic studies must be carried out simultaneously with pollutant removal studies. A direct relationship has been demonstrated between the deviation from Nusselt''s hydrodynamic model and the enhancement of pollutant removal.
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  • MOTOYUKI SUZUKI
    1974 Volume 6 Issue 6 Pages 540-543
    Published: March 15, 1974
    Released: March 27, 2006
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  • KORETSUNE UEYAMA, JUN-IGHI HATANAKA
    1974 Volume 6 Issue 6 Pages 543-544
    Published: March 15, 1974
    Released: March 27, 2006
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  • TOYOHIKO HAYAKAWA, MASATOMO SHIGETA
    1974 Volume 6 Issue 6 Pages 545-547
    Published: March 15, 1974
    Released: March 27, 2006
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  • NORIAKI WAKAO, KENJI TANAKA, D. S. SCOTT
    1974 Volume 6 Issue 6 Pages 547-550
    Published: March 15, 1974
    Released: March 27, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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