JAPANESE CIRCULATION JOURNAL
Online ISSN : 1347-4839
Print ISSN : 0047-1828
ISSN-L : 0047-1828
Volume 65 , Issue 1
Showing 1-13 articles out of 13 articles from the selected issue
Clinical Investigation
  • Hiromi Watanabe, Ichiro Watanabe, Toshiko Nakai, Naohiro Oshikawa, Sat ...
    Type: None
    Subject area: None
    2001 Volume 65 Issue 1 Pages 1-6
    Published: 2001
    Released: June 01, 2001
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    To compare the effects of class Ic and III antiarrhythmic agents on the termination and prevention of atrial fibrillation, the present study investigated the use-dependent electrophysiological effects of flecainide, nifekalant and d,l-sotalol on the human atrium. Flecainide significantly prolonged effective refractory period (ERP), intra-atrial conduction time (IACT) and monophasic action potential duration (MAPD), and its effects on ERP and IACT were use-dependent. Nifekalalant significantly prolonged ERP and MAPD, and these effects were reverse use-dependent; however, there was no significant change in IACT. d,l-Sotalol significantly prolonged MAPD and the effect was reverse use-dependent. It significantly prolonged ERP, but the effect was not reverse use-dependent. d,l-Sotalol increased IACT in a use-dependent manner. Thus, for atrial fibrillation, class Ic antiarrhythmic agents might be more effective in termination and class III antiarrhythmic agents might be more effective in prevention. (Jpn Circ J 2001; 65: 1 - 6)
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  • Tohru Obayashi, Takeshi Tokunaga, Tomohiro Iiizumi, Tatsuo Shiigai, Mi ...
    Type: None
    Subject area: None
    2001 Volume 65 Issue 1 Pages 7-10
    Published: 2001
    Released: June 01, 2001
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), transient QT interval prolongation with a prominent negative T wave is frequently observed in cases of early spontaneous reperfusion and often indicates a good prognosis. Additionally, in nuclear cardiac imaging, technetium-99m/thallium-201 overlap on dual single-photon emission computed tomography (dual SPECT) in AMI patients indicates the presence of viable myocardium and early recanalization. To elucidate the clinical significance of this transient QT interval prolongation, 34 patients (64±8 years) admitted within 24 h of the onset of anterior AMI were enrolled and classified into 2 groups according to the presence (group A, n=24) or absence (group B, n=10) of scintigraphic overlap on simultaneous dual SPECT imaging. The maximal QTc interval was 0.59±0.06 s in group A and 0.52±0.06 s in group B (p<0.01). The peak creatine kinase was lower in group A (2650±2160 IU/L) than in group B (3490±2060 IU/L). The left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) at discharge was 62±11% in group A and 49±14% in group B (p<0.01). The scintigraphic overlap group had a smaller infarct and better LVEF, which suggests that the QT interval prolongation that appears transiently in the acute phase of AMI indicates scintigraphically the presence of salvaged myocardium. (Jpn Circ J 2001; 65: 7 -10)
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  • Tadashi Nakamura, Yoshitaka Tsubono, Kaoru Kameda-Takemura, Tohru Funa ...
    Type: None
    Subject area: None
    2001 Volume 65 Issue 1 Pages 11-17
    Published: 2001
    Released: June 01, 2001
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A case - control study was performed to clarify the cause of ischemic heart disease (IHD), such as acute myocardial infarction and angina pectoris, in Japanese employees. Among 122,051 workers from 31 industries, 94 cases of IHD were the subjects of the study, and a total of 191 age-matched subjects from the same department, but who did not develop IHD, served as the controls. Compared with the control group, body mass index, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, serum total cholesterol and serum triglyceride were significantly higher, and cigarette consumption and serum uric acid also tended to be higher, in the patient group from at least 10 years prior to onset. The frequency of moderate-drinkers tended to be lower in the case group. Electrocardiograms showed that, compared with the control group, the frequency of myocardial ischemia was higher in the case group from 9 years prior to onset and further rapidly increased from 3 years prior. The frequency of subjects with arrhythmia was the same as the control group until 3 years before onset and increased rapidly from 2 years prior. The frequency of subjects with multiple risk factors, particularly obesity, hypertension, hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia, was consistently higher in the case group compared with the control group from 10 years prior to onset. Conditional logistic regression analysis demonstrated that having more than one risk factor greatly increased the risk; in particular, the combination of 3 or more factors increased the relative risk to 10.56 (95% confidence interval: 3.30-33.78). These findings suggest that a long duration of multiple risks is involved in the onset of IHD in Japanese employees, and that annual ECG monitoring as part of the medical examination was important in the prognosis. (Jpn Circ J 2001; 65: 11 - 17)
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  • Jeong Gwan Cho, Hyung Wook Park, Jay Young Rhew, Sang Rok Lee, Woo Kon ...
    Type: None
    Subject area: None
    2001 Volume 65 Issue 1 Pages 18-22
    Published: 2001
    Released: June 01, 2001
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In Western countries, sudden cardiac death (SCD) is closely related to coronary artery disease, but in Korea the clinical characteristics of SCD are not well determined. Over a 4-year period (June 1995 to May 1999), 186 cases of SCD, ranging in age from 16 to 75 years, were admitted to the Chonnam National University Hospital. In 82 (44.1%) of these, neither symptoms nor evidence of structural heart disease was found and so their clinical characteristics were investigated. There were 66 (80.5%) men and 16 (19.5%) women (male/female ratio = 4.1 : 1). The mean age was 50±14 years: 19 (23.2%) were in their 40s, 21 (25.6%) in their 50s, and 17 (20.7%) in their 60s. The time of circulatory collapse witnessed in 68 cases of SCD showed 2 peaks: between midnight and 03.00 h (n=16, 23.5%) and between 09.00 h and midday (n=15, 22.1%). Unexplained SCD occurred at home in 48 (64.9%) cases and on the street in 12 (16.2%); it occurred during normal daily routine activity in 23 (39.6%) and during sleep in 15 (25.9%). Thirty-three patients (40.2%) experienced various prodromal symptoms, including chest discomfort (n=13, 15.9%) and dyspnea (n=8, 9.8%). The electrocardiogram taken on arrival recorded asystole in 65 (79.3%) and ventricular fibrillation in 17 (20.7%). Idiopathic ventricular fibrillation was diagnosed in 14 (10 men, 4 women; 45±11 years) of 21 patients who recovered spontaneous circulation. Five (6.1%) patients were discharged alive, and an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator was implanted in 2. Unexplained SCD is common in Korea and develops predominantly in middle-aged males around midnight or in the late morning usually with no prodromal symptoms (59.8%). Idiopathic ventricular fibrillation is thought to be one of the important causes. (Jpn Circ J 2001; 65: 18 - 22)
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  • Takashi Tamura, Masaki Fujiwara, Katsuya Yoshida, Keiichi Nakagawa, Sa ...
    Type: None
    Subject area: None
    2001 Volume 65 Issue 1 Pages 23-27
    Published: 2001
    Released: June 01, 2001
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A statistically significant correlation was observed between the severity of anatomic stenosis and coronary flow reserve in experimental animals. A similar correlation in human coronary artery disease (CAD) was shown using positron emission tomography (PET) and pharmacologic vasodilator stress. The present study tested whether the concept of relative myocardial perfusion reserve (MPR) might be superior to absolute MPR in correlating coronary stenosis determined by quantitative coronary arteriography in patients with single vessel CAD using [13N]ammonia and PET. The study group comprised 21 patients (62±10 years old; 15 men, 6 women) with normal left ventricular function who underwent angioplasty for isolated left anterior descending coronary artery stenosis. Absolute MPR, the ratio of dipyridamole-induced hyperemic blood flow to baseline blood flow by [13N]ammonia PET, and relative MPR, the ratio of MPR in regions supplied by stenosed coronary arteries to MPR in remote regions, were measured before and 3 months after angioplasty. The percent diameter stenosis was also quantified on coronary arteriograms just before the angioplasty and again at 3 months after. The study found that absolute MPR (r=0.755; p<0.0001) and relative MPR (r=0.814; p<0.0001) were inversely and nonlinearly correlated with the percent stenosis on angiography. The fitting curve of the correlation between relative MPR and coronary stenosis on angiography was identical to that observed in animal models. Therefore, relative MPR measured by [13N]ammonia PET more accurately and specifically describes stenosis severity in patients with CAD compared with absolute MPR, probably because of its independence from hemodynamic variations and the effects of coronary risk factors. (Jpn Circ J 2001; 65: 23 - 27)
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  • Nobuhiko Hayashida, Shingo Chihara, Eiki Tayama, Toru Takaseya, Shogo ...
    Type: None
    Subject area: None
    2001 Volume 65 Issue 1 Pages 28-32
    Published: 2001
    Released: June 01, 2001
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    It is well known that dialysis-dependent renal failure increases the likelihood of a poor outcome following cardiac surgery. However, it is not known whether non-dialysis-dependent mild renal insufficiency also influences clinical outcome. Fifty-five patients with non-dialysis-dependent renal insufficiency undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) (Renal group: serum creatinine level >1.5 mg/dl) were enrolled. These patients were then matched on prognostic variables to 148 patients with normal renal function (Control group: serum creatinine level <1.5 mg/dl). The early postoperative clinical results showed that patients in the Renal group were more likely to develop postoperative renal failure (18% vs 1%; p=0.0002) and hemorrhage requiring re-exploration (11% vs 2%; p=0.01). Total morbidity was significantly higher in the Renal group (40% vs 22%; p=0.01). Multivariate analysis revealed that the Renal group was the second most important predictor of morbidity (oddsratio (OR) =2.2) behind left ventricular dysfunction (OR=2.9). The Renal group was also the second most important predictor of postoperative renal failure (OR=12.5). Therefore, non-dialysis-dependent mild renal insufficiency also increases the risk of morbidity following CABG. (Jpn Circ J 2001; 65: 28 - 32)
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  • Yoshihiro Seo, Toshiyuki Ishimitsu, Naoko Moriyama, Tomoko Ishizu, Tsu ...
    Type: None
    Subject area: None
    2001 Volume 65 Issue 1 Pages 33-39
    Published: 2001
    Released: June 01, 2001
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The present study was performed to determine whether a multilineal regression model based on the early diastolic transmitral flow peak velocity (E) and the propagation velocity of early diastolic inflow (PV) could estimate the pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP). PCWP and Doppler variables were simultaneously recorded in 30 patients. PCWP was estimated by multilinear regression analysis using E and PV. The predictive accuracy of the equation obtained from the analysis was tested prospectively in a separate group of 65 patients divided into 3 groups: left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction (Group A), LV hypertrophy (Group B), and preserved systolic function without hypertrophy (Group C). The initial results obtained in groups B and C, respectively, were: r=0.77; r=0.81. These results indicate that a multilinear regression model based on E and PV is a noninvasive method of accurately estimating PCWP in a variety of cardiac disease states. (Jpn Circ J 2001; 65: 33 - 39)
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Experimental Investigation
  • Shinichi Niwano, Naoto Yoshizawa, Kimiatsu Inuo, Junko Saito, Masahiko ...
    Type: None
    Subject area: None
    2001 Volume 65 Issue 1 Pages 40-45
    Published: 2001
    Released: June 01, 2001
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Post-repolarization refractoriness (PRR) is an important factor in determining conduction block and is the difference between the effective refractory period (ERP) and the duration of the monophasic action potential (MAPD). In the present study, conduction block in an artificial isthmus in the canine atrium was evaluated and the coupling interval of a premature beat, which caused the block, was defined as the block coupling interval (BCI). The usefulness of this value was also evaluated. Radiofrequency linear ablation was performed on the right atrial surface parallel to the atrioventricular groove in 5 mongrel dogs, and an artificial isthmus (8-10 mm wide and 25-30 mm long) was created. Fourteen simultaneous unipolar recordings were performed in the isthmus with a resolution of 1.2 mm. Single extra-stimuli with basic drive train were delivered to induce conduction block in the isthmus and when it occurred, the coupling interval at the recording site just proximal to the site of the block was defined as the BCI. At the site of the block, the ERP and MAPD at each drive cycle length were measured. The PRR was calculated using 2 different formulae: (1) [ERP - MAPD], and (2) [BCI - MAPD]. It was found that each value was shortened in accordance with the shortening of the basic drive cycle length. In all basic drive trains, BCI>ERP>MAPD, and [ERP - MAPD] was always shorter than [BCI - MAPD]. In the shorter cycle length of basic drives, the difference between [ERP - MAPD] and [BCI - MAPD] was more prominent. In the artificial isthmus model in the canine atrium, BCI was always longer than the ERP measured at the same site as the block. Because the ERP may not directly reflect the block phenomenon, the electrophysiologic evaluation should use the BCI instead, as in the PRR evaluation. (Jpn Circ J 2001; 65: 40 - 45)
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Case Report
  • Toshiyuki Ishikawa, Sinichi Sumita, Masami Kosuge, Izumi Kobayashi, Te ...
    Type: None
    Subject area: None
    2001 Volume 65 Issue 1 Pages 46-49
    Published: 2001
    Released: June 01, 2001
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    It has been reported that cardiac function can be improved by implanting a DDD pacemaker (PM) and setting a short atrioventricular (AV) delay in patients with impaired cardiac function. A previous report found that the critical AV delay that induces diastolic mitral regurgitation (MR) may represent the upper limit of the optimal AV delay. The optimal AV delay can be predicted by a simple method: slightly prolonged AV delay minus the interval between the end of the atrial kick and complete closure of the mitral valve (duration of diastolic MR) at the AV delay setting. The patient was a 84-year-old man with an old myocardial infarction. He had repeated admissions to hospital for congestive heart failure. ECG showed prolongation of the PQ interval (0.28 s) and complete left bundle branch block. Cardiac function was improved by AV sequential pacing when the AV delay was set at 120 ms. After DDD-PM implantation, the cardiothoracic ratio decreased from 57 to 45% and cardiac function was improved from New York Heart Association class III to I. The AV delay was optimized during follow-up. Four years after PM implantation, the patient was in good condition without further hospital admission. (Jpn Circ J 2001; 65: 46 - 49)
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  • Yoshio Kobayashi, Issam Moussa, Milena Adamian, Jeffrey W Moses
    Type: None
    Subject area: None
    2001 Volume 65 Issue 1 Pages 50-51
    Published: 2001
    Released: June 01, 2001
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A 64-year-old male with unstable angina underwent direct stenting in the proximal and mid-left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) lesions. Although coronary angiography showed a good result, intravascular ultrasound imaging revealed a dissection flap protruding through the struts of the stent in the proximal LAD. Another stent was deployed in the first stent (stent-in-stent) to seal it. The patient's in-hospital course was uneventful. Subacute stent thrombosis was not observed. (Jpn Circ J 2001; 65: 50 - 51)
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  • Hiroichiro Yamaguchi, Hideto Yamauchi, Takafumi Yamada, Tsuneo Ariyosh ...
    Type: None
    Subject area: None
    2001 Volume 65 Issue 1 Pages 52-55
    Published: 2001
    Released: June 01, 2001
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Two cases of coronary artery aneurysm after percutaneous coronary intervention are presented. In both cases, follow-up coronary angiography revealed an expanding saccular aneurysmal formation and restenosis or a new lesion. Consequently, surgical repair and revascularization were indicated. The intraoperative angioscope was used to identify the aneurysm, which had not been visible on the heart surface in one case. Its optic fiber light was a useful guide, but little information was obtained from direct vision because of the small caliber of the angioscope. Plication of the aneurysm and bypass grafting distal to the aneurysm were performed. A whitish and thick-walled aneurysm was easily found in one case, in which ligation of the aneurysm was attempted with added distal bypass. The postoperative course was uneventful in both cases, and follow-up angiography showed disappearance of the aneurysm with patent grafts. There was a fragile thrombus inside both the aneurysmal sacs, which might have caused myocardial infarction and, therefore, justified the surgical repair of the aneurysm with concomitant revascularization. (Jpn Circ J 2001; 65: 52 - 55)
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  • Tomoyuki Kunishima, Haruki Musha, Terushige Yamamoto, Hideshi Aoyagi, ...
    Type: None
    Subject area: None
    2001 Volume 65 Issue 1 Pages 56-59
    Published: 2001
    Released: June 01, 2001
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A 25-year-old man was found to have an abnormal cardiac contour on a chest radiograph, and was referred. Transesophageal echocardiography suggested herniation of the left atrial appendage (LAA) through a gap in the pericardium, and magnetic resonance imaging indicated congenital partial absence of the pericardium. Cardiac dysfunction was caused by compression from the enlarged left atrium and thrombi were thought to be present in the appendage, so surgery was performed. The intraoperative diagnosis was congenital LAA aneurysm. Although distinguishing between congenital LAA aneurysm and congenital absence of the pericardium is reported to be possible with magnetic resonance imaging, we were unable to so in this case. (Jpn Circ J 2001; 65: 56 - 59)
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