The American Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) sets the minimum standards for neurosurgery training in the United States. In recent years, these minimum standards have been revised and reorganized into clinical Core Competencies : Patient Care, Medical Knowledge, Practice-based Learning and Improvement, Professionalism, and System-based Practice. Though basic science or clinical research is not a requirement, the ACGME specifies a minimum standard of scholarly activity in neurosurgery training. At many institutions in the United States, and at Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia, a more formal program has been established to promote the academic development of neurosurgery residents. The goal is to encourage residents to pursue research and publication, teaching, and ultimately a goal in the university setting. Like many institutions, Emory University requires residents to participate in research. At the very beginning of their training, we introduce first-year residents to a committee of research mentors that guide the residents into research laboratories or into clinical research as they mature in the training program. In the middle years of training, residents are required to publish papers (case reports, retrospective studies, prospective studies), and incentives are created to stimulate this activity such as attending national and international meetings. Research efforts are organized by sub-specialization, and specific projects and sources of funding are prepared in advance of the each resident's research year. Near completion of the neurosurgery training, guidance and support is given to residents desiring an academic position. This includes instruction in applying for young investigator grant support as well as help in identifying job opportunities. The specific aspects of the Emory program in neurosurgery academic development are reviewed in this paper.