Journal of Crop Research
Online ISSN : 2424-1318
Print ISSN : 1882-885X
ISSN-L : 1882-885X
Volume 62
Showing 1-11 articles out of 11 articles from the selected issue
Invited Article
Research Article
  • Tsuneo Kato, Akira Horibata
    2017 Volume 62 Pages 1-5
    Published: 2017
    Released: December 22, 2017
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS
    The spreading-stub phenotype in rice could be a novel plant architecture in rice breeding. As a factor underlying this phenotype, weakened negative gravitropism of the stems caused by a shortage of starch granules in pulvinus cells has been proposed. This study evaluated one erect-type (non-spreading) cultivar and two spreading-type cultivars, which had the already reported to have nucleotide substitutions in the fourth intron of TAC1, for their negative gravitropism at the tillering stage. The degree of negative gravitropism was quantified from the responses to slanting treatment, in which plants in pots were slanted at 45° from the perpendicular, and also their recovery after plants were returned to the upright position. Starch content of the leaf sheath bases was also determined. Results showed that the two spreading-type cultivars clearly rose up less, and expressed weaker negative gravitropism than the erect-type cultivar in response to the two treatments during the tillering stage. The shortage of starch in the stem bases, including pulvinus cells, was also implied in these spreading-type cultivars. The present results, therefore, support the mechanism of spreading-stub expression in rice.
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  • Yasuo Koroda, Yoshiaki Enoki, Tomio Sawada
    2017 Volume 62 Pages 7-9
    Published: 2017
    Released: December 22, 2017
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS
    The bean seeds, which are sensitive to high humidity soil, are often damaged by sowing in the rainy season. Therefore, securing of rapid seedling emergence is important. We investigated the influence of molybdenum (Mo) addition to seeds on budding rate, growth, and yield of the beans. Results indicated that seedling emergence rate was promoted by the Mo addition, leading to the securing of yield.
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  • Akira Horibata, Tetsuya Matsukawa
    2017 Volume 62 Pages 11-17
    Published: 2017
    Released: December 22, 2017
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS
    A native variety of red perilla (Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton var. crispa (Thunb.) H. Deane) with an extremely fine fragrance had been cultivated in the Kinokawa river basin, Wakayama Prefecture, Japan, since ancient times up to about 10 years ago. We hope to promote this germplasm as a regional specialty product; thus, it is necessary to clarify the superiority of the germplasm to other commercial red perilla varieties with similar characteristics. In this study, we compared the morphological characteristics and functional substance content of two germplasms native to Wakayama with those of three commercial varieties of aromatic red perilla and the common variety chirimen-jiso (red perilla with frilly leaves). The morphological characteristics showed that the native Wakayama germplasms are classified as aka-jiso (red perilla with smooth leaves), whereas all three aromatic varieties are classified as chirimen-jiso. Quantitative analysis of the aromatic substances perillaldehyde and limonene showed that native Wakayama germplasms contain more than twice the amount of aromatic substances compared with the aromatic varieties. Thus, the native Wakayama germplasms should be commercially superior. There were no differences between the cultivars in the content of the water-soluble polyphenols rosmarinic acid and caffeic acid, which are the most important functional substances in perilla, in the fresh leaves, although there were greater differences in the dried leaves. This result suggests that the biosynthesis of water-soluble polyphenols continued as the leaves dried.
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  • Yuki Tsujimura, Chizuru Inoue, Than Myint Htun, Yumi Oka, Takashige Is ...
    2017 Volume 62 Pages 19-23
    Published: 2017
    Released: December 22, 2017
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS
    Asian cultivated rice Oryza sativa L. has been known to be domesticated from wild rice, O. rufipogon. During domestication, agronomically suitable traits were selected, including a loss of seed shattering. In previous studies, three quantitative trait loci (QTLs), sh4, qSH1, and qSH3, were found to be involved in the non-shattering behaviour of O. sativa Japonica ‘Nipponbare’. In contrast, O. sativa Indica ‘IR36’ has cultivated alleles at sh4 and qSH3, but a partial abscission layer formation has been observed. Differences in the seed-shattering degree between Japonica and Indica rice are mainly accounted for by the genotypes at qSH1. However, the allele effects at the loci controlling the non-shattering behaviour of Indica rice are not known clearly. We previously produced an introgression line (IL) carrying O. sativa Japonica ‘Nipponbare’ cultivated alleles at sh4 and qSH3 in the genetic background of wild rice O. rufipogon W630. Although this introgression line (hereafter IL(3+4)) has the same genotypes at sh4 and qSH3 as O. sativa Indica ‘IR36’, it has a well-formed abscission layer compared to that of IR36, resulting in very easy-shattering like wild rice. To understand the independent effects of sh4 and qSH3 on non-shattering behaviour of ‘IR36’, we evaluated the F1 and F2 plants between ‘IR36’ and IL(3+4). In F1 plants, the formation of a clear abscission layer was observed in a manner similar to that of IL(3+4), suggesting that ‘IR36’ may harbour recessive allele(s) at unidentified seed-shattering loci. We also observed the segregation of seed-shattering behaviour in the F2 population, confirming that other unknown mutation(s) may underlie the non-shattering behaviour of ‘IR36’.
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  • Yuma Takeda, Masamichi Ohe
    2017 Volume 62 Pages 25-29
    Published: 2017
    Released: December 22, 2017
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS
    The influences that the different light environment in the suburban paddy field gave to growth of the paddy rice were studied. In a rice field, the growth and yield components were investigated at the place that received intermittent shading by houses (Shading plot), the place affected by the nightlight with the streetlight (Streetlight plot). The heading delayed for two days in shading plot and eight days in nightlight plot respectively as compared with that of the control. The number of the panicles and 1,000 grain weight were inferior in shading plot, and the yield was 43% of the control plot. The number of the panicles, ripened grain rate and 1,000 grain weight were inferior in the streetlight plot, and the yield was 28% of the control plot. It was suggested that the difference of the light environment by the urbanization gave influences on the growth and yield of the rice in a paddy field.
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  • Yuki Miyazaki, Minh Ngoc Pham, Katie L. Liberatore, Shahryar F. Kiania ...
    2017 Volume 62 Pages 31-36
    Published: 2017
    Released: December 22, 2017
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS
    Emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccum) represents the primitive situation in the domestication of AABB tetraploid wheat. As one of the earliest domesticated grain species, it was a principal crop in the development and spread of Neolithic agriculture in the Old World. Grain weight and dimension (size and shape) have been major targets of selection since the beginning of agriculture. To clarify the genetic mechanism (s) affecting grain weight and dimension, we utilized 92 backcross recombinant inbred lines (BRILs) derived from a cross between a domesticated emmer wheat and a wild emmer wheat (T. turgidum ssp. dicoccoides). Weight, grain dimensions (width, length, and height), ratios of dimensions (shape), and correlations between traits were evaluated for two consecutive years, 2015 and 2016. All grain dimension components showed strong positive correlation with grain weight. Among them, the highest correlation coefficient (r=0.822) was observed between the grain weight and width, suggesting that grain width was a main target of selection for increasing grain weight during emmer wheat domestication. In addition, both the grain length/width ratio and the length/height ratio showed negative correlation with grain weight. These results indicate that a transition from slender to round grain shape was advantageous in the early stage of wheat domestication.
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  • Yuka Tojo, Masayoshi Teraishi, Hiroki Saito, Yutaka Okumoto
    2017 Volume 62 Pages 37-40
    Published: 2017
    Released: December 22, 2017
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS
    Rice starch is composed of linear amylose and branched amylopectin. The physicochemical properties of starch are influenced by amylose content and amylopectin structure. In this study, we examined the diversity of the chain length distribution of amylopectin among NIAS rice core collection of Japanese landraces, and compared the expression level of genes related to starch biosynthesis (starch synthase, branching enzyme and debranching enzyme). The measurement of the chain length distribution showed that Japonica varieties were mainly three types and more than half of them had high proportions of short chain length while the Indica species low proportions. The principal component analysis of the chain length distribution and gene expression level revealed that those with high short chain proportion were divided from other three groups with low short chain proportion. However, any tendency was not found to devide other three groups. It was suggested that there are some gene regulation pattern for starch synthesis among varieties with low short chain proportion.
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  • Tsuneo Kato
    2017 Volume 62 Pages 41-45
    Published: 2017
    Released: December 22, 2017
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS
    A novel panicle type ‘short tip panicle’ (STP) in rice was characterized by its short primary branches and fewer spikelets on primary branches only at the top of the panicle, compared with on other branches. The objective of this study was to examine the mode of inheritance of STP. To examine STP quantitatively, the mean spikelet number per primary branch on the top two primary branches (STP value) was measured as an index of the degree of STP. To search for variation in STP values among rice cultivars, 41 cultivars were examined. Only the japonica-type cultivar ‘Gimbozu’ showed values consistent with STP, indicating that this cultivar was unique in its STP expression. F1 plants, F2 populations and F2:3 lines were generated from crosses in a half-diallel mode of Gimbozu (STP)/Chugoku 117 (wild type), Gimbozu/RY50 (wild type) and Chugoku 117/RY50. The results strongly suggested that the STP phenotype was regulated at a dominant allele, Stp, at STP locus, and the expression of Stp was inhibited by an incomplete dominant allele, I-Stp, at an independent I-STP locus. Therefore, Gimbozu, Chugoku 117 and RY50 have genotypes of StpStp i-Stpi-Stp, stpstp I-StpI-Stp and stpstp i-Stpi-Stp, respectively. This STP phenotype could contribute to understand genetic regulation of panicle architecture in rice.
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Note
  • Misago Ito, Hayato Tokumoto, Masamichi Ohe
    2017 Volume 62 Pages 47-50
    Published: 2017
    Released: December 22, 2017
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS
    The utility of horse manure compost as substitute culture soil for the raising seedling of paddy rice raising were evaluated at the point of the growth of the transplanting seedling and the characteristic as the culture soil. The commercial culture soil, the horse manure compost and the controlled horse manure compost which was adjusted to appropriate pH were used as seedling culture soil. The seedling growth of the controlled horse manure compost was slightly inferior to that of the commercial culture soil, but the seedling grew enough so as to be able to transplant. The strength of the seedling mat was in the order of the commercial culture soil = the horse manure compost > the controlled horse manure compost, but the seedling strength of the controlled horse manure compost was enough for transplanting work. Therefore, we considered that the horse manure compost is useful for the raising seedling material of rice, because the weight of seedling box of horse manure plots, which was filled with the horse manure compost or the controlled horse manure compost, were remarkably lighter than that of the commercial culture soil.
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