This study was designed to investigate whether there were differences in SLA (second language acquisition) between learners with different language backgrounds, specifically Japanese and Chinese learners of English, and to investigate the effect of the two parameter types upon SLA, i.e. the null subject parameter and the head parameter. This study also investigated the relationship between the different proficiency levels (low, intermediate, and advanced) and the use of the two parameter types in SLA for both Japanese and Chinese groups. The main conclusion of this study was that the differences in second language learning (SLL) for Japanese and Chinese college students could not be explained from the viewpoint of parameters.
According to White (1989), since the Subset Principle may not effectively work in L2 acquisition, a parameter with multiple values with three or more values, which meets the Subset Condition, may need negative evidence, while a binary parameter with two values may be reset through positive evidence. This paper attempts to see if White's theory would work in an experimental-classroom teaching. I used two language properties: the first is the reflexive which has a multiple parameter with three values and meets the Subset Condition, and the other is the relative clause which has a binary parameter with two values. The subjects were 32 students from a private junior high school. They were divided into two groups; a positive-input and a negative-input group. Three sessions were held and three grammatical judgment tests were undertaken: pre-test, post-test 1, and post-test 2. The mean score of the reflexive for the positive-input group was higher than that of the relative clause, which does not seem to support White's theory. On the other hand, the result of the negative-input group was significantly better than that of the positive-input group in both language properties, which renders a support for her theory.
Mathematics in developing countries is usually treated as one of the science subjects that contribute to build industrialized societies and taught compulsory at school expecting to develop science-oriented human resources. However the current situation in some developing countries shows serious difficulties of mathematics education. It actually has been effective for the social selection but not enough working for the human development of the societies. Not only that, it is even making a negative force to the whole education of the societies. Before talking about a role of mathematics as technology-oriented device, we should think another important role of the subject that is for basic human development. Under the circumstances students in developing countries have no choice but to work hard on mathematics at school. Why do we not utilize the opportunity for the empowerment of all the children?
This study presented the acquisition of semantics-syntax correspondences in second language acquisition with dative alternation. It was based on the linguistic perspectives of dativizability of verbs and their acquisition in a second language within the framework of generative grammar. The main objective of the study was to assess participants' knowledge of semantics-syntax correspondences through their competence in dative alternation. In order to assess the research questions, a grammaticality judgment task was carried out. The task was divided into two parts, the first one included real verbs and the second one included made-up verbs. The results were analyzed by an analysis of variance focusing on three factors: verb pattern, verb class, and verb types. It was further considered whether the semantic and syntactic rules of LI (i.e., Japanese) influenced the learners' acquisition of English as a second language.
Geometric construction is usually considered as the procedure of drawing a figure bounded by a straightedge ruler and a compass. It, however, could be didactical intermediate between a cause-effect and an assumption-conclusion explanation because it is not only a series of systematic activities using only two tools but also mathematical proof of existence in itself. We, therefore, consider it as a educational threshold of proof in system although most mathematics teachers emphasize its procedural aspect. We analyzed the justification of the geometric constructions made by seventh grade students in the classroom lessons in terms of image schema. Image schema was developed for a meaning-making function by Dörfler(1991). It was made available for us to clarify the logical or cognitive base of the students' justification and change of thought. This research finally showed some factors for the transition from construction to proof in geometry.
In the development of a new curriculum whose focus is mathematical activity as signified, the verb as its signifier should be a center of consideration. This is why the proposed curriculum is named verb-based. In mathematics education, an activity deepens itself in a recursive manner through symbolization of activity. Bishop (1991) has widened this concept of activity and claimed that each culture has developed its own mathematics through six universal activities. The verb-based curriculum intends to make use of these cultural activities. The overall theme of the series of researches concerns the international cooperation in mathematics education especially with Kenya as a leading country on the African continent. In the development of the verb-based curriculum, the authors have this concern, with resonance of mathematics educators such as D'Ambrosio (1985), Gerdes (1990), Nebres (1988) in the developing countries, who have proposed cultural perspectives of mathematics education. And the target of this paper was the analysis of the Japanese course of study at the primary level, and the verbs in it were collected and analyzed. As a result, it has shown the structure of mathematical activities under the theory of internalization.
The purpose of this study has two-folds: (A) to explore the structure of teachers' perception of emphasis in science teaching; and (B) to examine the prevailing instructional method utilized by inquiry oriented science teachers. The first part of the study focuses on measurement of the teaching emphasis on inquiry science and examined the relationships among four factors in more detail through a structural equation model. Second, the relationship between teachers' emphasis on inquiry science and their classroom practice was explored. The results of two analyses present the findings as follows: (A) The exploratory factor analysis of various teaching emphases revealed that various teaching emphasis could be classified into four factors: (a) development of inquiry skill in science; (b) development of affective domain in science; (c) development of awareness of science history; and (d) development of knowledge and understanding in science. (B) It also revealed that the emphasis on inquiry science has a potential to associate to the emphasis on science concept and knowledge understandings. The study revealed that the emphasis on inquiry science is the most influential factor in the hands-on science approach.