The present Cambodian Teachers of English (CTE) in Cambodian Secondary Schools (CSSs) really need access to a wide range of information concerning English Language Teaching (ELT) to function well in the classroom. Thus, any challenge of providing effective teaching preparation and ongoing professional development for them is desperately enormous. The purpose of this study is to look into the fact that, to what extent the ideas suggested by CTE in CSSs towards the improvement of ELT in their schools are. To obtain factual results concerning those elicited concepts, the study is, first of all, to investigate the contemporary constraints of ELT, to identify major trends and issues, and to find out where these trends and issues have come from. As seen in the first paragraph, the practical concepts suggested by the CTE in CSSs towards the improvement of ELT in their schools are thought to be the hypothesis of this study. To look into this hypothesis, and to find out desirable outcomes from this hypothesis, quantitative and qualitative types of research is designed. The results obtained from this study are the products of the triangulation analysis, i.e. the synthesis of the two approaches: quantitative and qualitative (Seliger, 1989). Based on the implications shown by the obtained-data analysis, the study concludes by proposing some key directions in taking into consideration for immediate or future development of ELT in CSSs.
The present study focuses on non-native speaking teachers, with special emphasis on English language teachers. Teachers of the English language have been encouraged by curricular documents and inspectors' reports, which show an increase in the amount of target language use in the classrooms since the advent of the communicative approach. Even though there is little solid theoretical evidence to show that more target language input results in more effective acquisition, the stress on how much teacher uses target language remains. This study discusses here attempts to discern the real reasons behind the low target language usage by 172 non-native speaking teachers from 16 countries. The study will show that the reasons related to teachers, such as lack of confidence in the target language proficiency and teachers' pedagogical concerns influence more on their target language use rather than the reasons related to pupils.
"Mathematization" is a term used to extend the educational philosophy of mathematical teaching and learning as an active and creative process. It is Wittmann's Teaching Units that have brought the idea of design science into the didactical practice of mathematization. His Teaching Units, however, do not have a diachronic design of how the lesson in the classroom should be developed over time, although they contain the fundamental design such as objectives, materials, problems, and background. On the other hand, mathematization can be regarded as a typical symbolization process in the sense of Peirce which is called semiosis, and in this context the Dörfler's generalization model, which starts from the activity and constructs the generalization process, is quite thought-provoking. It is therefore possible to design, practise and evaluate the Teaching Units of Wittmann in the teaching-learning context in terms of the generalization model by Dörfler. This is the objective as well as the result of this research. The methodology is to employ a teaching experiment called 'Star Patterns' based on the above theoretical framework, and to prove its effectiveness through the analysis of results based on Dörfler's model.
The purpose of this paper is to propose a plan for the contents of a program on ball games. The following matters are examined: previous related studies on the instruction of ball games which have brought successful results, the theory of the strategy and tactics of the game, and the theory of the phase development of the game. I would like to consider the following questions mainly. What is the fundamental unit that integrates basic skills into game performance? How should we lead students to a concrete understanding of strategy and tactics? How should we compose instruction programs which make learners understand game play gradually? In conclusion, I propose that a course on ball games consist of the following four parts: (1) basic skills, tactical ability and understanding of game play, (2) game analysis, (3) communication, and (4) understanding of the rules, game and competition.
The present study examines the effects of the learning contexts in the L2 and the influence of the L1 on the L2 acquisition process. The independent variables included (1) contexts (Japanese and Sri Lankan learners, ESL (English as a Second Language) and EFL (English as Foreign Language), and (2) schools (high school and university). The Grammaticality Judgment Test was the dependent variable. The result indicated that the students who studied English as a Second Language (ESL) are more advanced in handling countable and non-countable nouns than the students who studied English as a Foreign Language (EFL). The influence of the L1 on the L2 seemed contradictory.
The present study compared the perspectives of foreign and Japanese instructors regarding selected practical and attitudinal variables of professionalism in school-wide environments and the team-teaching dynamic. The primary objective was to establish the extent to which the two groups differ in assessing the significance of opportunity, capacity and interpersonal connection in daily interactions with one another. Participants consisted of 208 Assistant Language Teachers (ALT) and 96 Japanese Language Teachers (JLT) working together through the Japan Exchange and Teaching (JET) Program. First, ANOVAs and path models constructed to illustrate causal relationships revealed a close interdependency between opportunities for professional development and the ability to do work effectively. Second, ALTs attach decidedly more importance to interpersonal relationships with JLTs, while the reverse relationship was not found. Third, results for both groups indicate unclear expectations in relation to the ALT's role in the school.
This study longitudinally investigated language abilities that contribute to the English listening ability of Japanese high school EFL learners. The participants were given the same language tests in English and Japanese with an interval of one year, and the data were analyzed by a multiple regression analysis. The results showed that both in the first and second years, the most important factor to explain their English listening ability was the ability of aural English word recognition. Another finding by the analysis was that in the second year English and Japanese reading abilities were also significant contributors to English listening ability. As a pedagogical implication, training to improve high school students' ability of aural recognition of English words may be recommended as the first step to successful English listening.
The purpose of this study is to investigate how prospective teachers comprehend student's naive conception. For this purpose, firstly, we focus on theorem-in-action in conceptual fields theory (Vergnaud, 1990) and elaborate the notion in order to evaluate students' naive conception in detail. Secondly, we report the case study on liner function. Two types of data were collected: a questionnaire investigation for prospective teacher, and an interview on what they thought of students' naive conception. These results show that if prospective teachers identify both the factual and valuable aspects of students' naive conception, they might place them in teaching mathematics positively.
The purpose of this study was to grope for the ideal way of home economics education in the Japanese Schools in Singapore and Hong Kong. I investigated the actual conditions of family life of children and the learning of home economics. In Singapore Japanese School, immersion program was introduced into home economics education. As for the performance percentage of helping their mothers in home, the findings of survey on children in the Hong Kong Japanese School showed somewhat higher percentage. Further, high degrees of satisfaction by students for overseas life were shown on the whole, but there was some difference, depending upon country where they stayed. It was a common tendency to children in both Japanese Schools that they liked practical training. The students felt that home economics contributed to daily life and that both boys and girls should study skills, which needed everyday life.