As soon as the children were born, they have to be taught under the circumstances of their homes and societies. The home education gets into having children's own way, but the society calls for keeping the law. The one is swayed by sentiment, the other by practical reason. Then the school education should be done under the intellectual atmosphere which is in between the home education and the social pressure. But when the pupils are young, the school education should be laid emphasis on their instincts. As the pupils grow up, the educational efforts for developing their abilities should be centralized upon their logical activities. We are making inquiries to find some suitable device in making the school curriculum, that is, it makes the pupils creative with the least endeavor for teaching and learning. We think such the expectations should be made possible through the observational analysis of class-room activities. Our research about the school curriculum may be reconstructed into three parts, that is, the fundamental theory, the theory of the subject disciplines differentiated from the culture and the methodological theory of teaching and learning in according to the curriculum. The curriculum contents should be determined by the results of analyzing the culture, that is, the systems of experimental knowledge, of the fashion in representation, of the value and of the outlook on the world.
There are two standpoints for constructing the course of education. One of them is that first of all we choose a particular subject and then begin to construct its course of education: The other is that we first begin to think of the concept of education in general and next choose a particular subject conveniently to elaborate the general concept. In Japan after the war, the study has been developed from the first standpoint mentioned above. The subject education has been being systematized for each of the subject in a separate way. The writer tries to point out the shortcomings of this way of study, i.e., one from the first standpoint, and intends to suggest the necessity of constructing the course of education from the second standpoint just mentioned. In this study the science education is taken up as an example.
1 The recent tendency of the reform of teacher education The principal objectives of this literature are to analyze the existing state of the courses of study which have been reformed, and to consider the questions which have come up as a result of the analysis. 2 Science education in the courses for the primary school teachers (1) Science education for the students who don't major in science A survey of the curriculum revealed that almost all of the colleges and faculties prepared special subjects for the students in the courses for the primary school teachers. Specifically speaking, science for this group of primary school teachers is studied not as individually differentiated subjects but as a combined whole. (2) Science education for the students who major in science The same survey showed that the students who major in science took extremely large number of units in science in the professional education course, leaving very little time for the other supporting courses such as literature, history, music, etc. This has further created an imbalance and thus has lowered the quality of education in this area. (3) The curriculum reform of the courses for the primary school teachers The curriculum requires four years to complete the courses of study for the primary school teachers. As it is now, too many courses are required in the student's major field. Rather than concentrate too much on one's major, I believe that the staff of the Faculty of Education should recognize that length of time must be used to generate a curriculum emphasizing a balance between quality and quantity, both in the field of general education and in professional education, and creating a continuity between the two in the process. 3 Science education in the courses for the junior high school teachers There are two types of courses for the junior high school teachers. The A-type requires a deep concentration on one of the following subjects: Physics, Chemistry, Biology, or Geology. The B-type requires all four subjects on equal basis. The Faculty of Education at Shinonome, Hiroshima University requires a minimum of eight units in each of these four subjects, thus avoiding extremly large numbers of units for specific subjects. 4 The course of study at the faculties of education A lot of questions have come up in my study of the courses of study for the primary and junior high school teachers. Reform is dictated especially to the course of study for the primary school teachers as it is in a very confused state.
The following data are obtained from an observation for using morningglories as a teaching material of technical education in a junior high school course. (1) Himekosode, a kind of morning glory, is better. (2) It is better to darken around its young plants which seeds are sown in May and heat them between 20℃ and 30℃ than to keep them at atmospheric temperature without being heated. (3) When it is repeated twice to darken around them for sixteen hours together and heat them at 30℃, the seeds sown in May will be in bloom in July. (4) When these data are used in a classroom, it can be expected to improve pupils' thinking on technical education.
Now a days it is insisted that the researchers of mathematical education research scientifically into it, and it is expected to build up the theory of mathematical education as a science or a discipline. But until now it has been left to be undetermined whether this discipline is belong to pedagogy or not, and how this discipline should be related to mathematics. We make researches in this paper into relation of mathematics with this discipline. At first, we consider some expected properties of this discipline as a science. These are as follows: (1) It is stemed from real problems yielded by the activities of teaching- learning process of mathematics, (2) It may be identified one of emirical sciences, and (3) satisfied that this discipline should have some scientific properties. We will state it as a metascience of the problems of teaching-learning process of mathematics. (4) It is possible to study as an interdiscipline between many subjects. Under the above properties of our theory of mathematical education, we can call it science of mathematical education. We consider the position of mathematics on this science in the next three aspect: (1) necessity of consideration of "mathematics about", (2) mathematics as educational content, especially in the context of the process of translation of mathematics into subject matters, for example, in the context of general framework in which mathematics comes to existence and develop itself which is made of the triples, situation-model-theory (= mathematics) introduced by A. Revuz, (3) usefulness of mathematical models, non-metric as well as metric. We list up some papers on the studies of mathematical education in each aspect for the purpose of explaining concrete content of each and showing satisfiability such that each aspect do not contradict itself.
We shall show a definition of creativity in mathematics inducted from general creativities and from tests of mathematics creativity. One of our researches concerning with mathematics creativity is discussed and stated as a research of stage of abduction. Next, 'make-up problem test' in mathematics is discussed.
The author has studied on a bit of things, intending to find out "the way of giving information' and aiming at an approach to a method of engineering of education. On this paper, a method which he tried from an educational, clinical viewpoint at an introductory stage of "specific heat" at the junior high school and its effect are chiefly described. The contents of this paper are as follows: 1. Preface (Introduction) 2. Main Thesis 2.1 Motivation and Object of This Study 2.2 Consideration on the Inquiry Session from a Comparative Viewpoint and from an Analytical Standpoint 3. Epilogue (Conclusion) 3.1 Condition of Teaching and Students status before Teaching 3.2 Some Consideration on a Change of Thinking Potential of Students through the Inquiry Session and a Trial of Seeking After a Prototype of Inquiry Session, Considering of "the Way of Giving Adequate Information by a Catalyst' and Biliography.
This report on the teaching of Earth Science is an attempt to investigate what particular effect can be expected on students, what kind of suggestions are required and where their eyes should be focused on, in the field outcrop. After the careful examinations of the result, I put the process of the observation behaviors into the program and make the cards intended to allow students to observe as freely as possible. On the ground of the behaviors and reactions of students, who observed out of doors according to the directions of those cards, I reexamined how the out door observation should be.