The handling of needle, which is the skill for suturing clothes, has been featured in the teaching of Japanese style costume making, and teached in the home economics education. On the future home economics education, not only the skill for suturing clothes but the principle of sewing and the meaning of hand work must be mastered. In this report the movement of the eyeballs is observed by ophthalmography and the view when needle handling is discussed to study the principle and the criterion of the needle handling motion and investigate its importance and possibilities. Furthermore analyses of participation muscles through EMG and of the motions, and the stitch evaluation were performed. The obtained effects are significant because of teaching of the handling of needle in relation to the human body on the clothing section of the home economics education.
We researched development of interrelation within the elements of the class; daily life, teaching materials and pupils' feelings when studying homemaking. We analyzed reports by the homemaking teacher at the elementary school attached to Tokyo University of Education, from the journal "Kyoiku Kenkyu". Consistently, the homemaking teacher mainly held classes about what the pupils were feeling when studying. From 1946 to 1955, through her realizing their daily life, she described to pupils' feelings as "want to learn" and "must learn", and at the same time, she investigated the purpose of the homemaking education and created teaching materials suitable for it. But after 1955, she described them as "pleasant", "not boresome and "to gain confidence in oneself. These changes in her descriptions of pupils' feelings meant that she hoped to teach depending on the course of study and vigorously researched teaching method.
The contents of the textbooks of Sachunterricht, which has been used in the Federal Republic of Germany, were introduced. The discussion was focused on the descriptions of the textbooks and workbooks for the second and fourth years pupils of the elementary school (Grundschule). The correlations existing between the fields of social study and natural sciences were shown. The difference, which reflects to the textbooks, of the geographical and the social situations between Germany and Japan was briefly discussed.
The purpose of this study was to investigate factor's kinds and structure of enjoyment in individual gymnastics, heavy gymnastics, athletics, ball game, swimming and ausdruckmotorik through learner's position. 2818 boys and girls of elementary school (fifth grade and sixth grade) were observed in this survey. The result were as follows. 1) We admitted that through six domains factor of "achievement" clealy existed. Factor of "achievement" is centered in structure of "device", "independence", "couching", "progress", "tension" and "superiority". 2) It was attributes of each domain that "challeng" was found in heavy gymnastics, "enforcement" was found in individual gymnastics. We admitted in swimming factor of "achievement" was centered in combining "thrill", "progress", "tension". We couldn't admit any special relation in other domains. 3) Each factors in all domain were classified into two groups of factors, one, it is about learning of mother skill, included "achievement", "challenge", "progress", "device", "thrill", "tension", another, it is about human relationship, included "friendly", "couching", "affinity", "empathy", "relaxation".
Using basketball as a medium, we examined how differences in structuring teaching material (class plans) would affect the attitudes toward physical education courses and skills of children. Four classes of sixth graders participated in the study. Class plans were structured in four different concepts as follows. (1) "Image" aproach: give priority to that image of basketball espoused by the children (having the children formulate their own tasks). (2) "Evolutionary" approach: have the children "discover" a predetermined sequence of developments in learning basketball, based on the historical evolution of the game. (3) "Combination" approach: emphasize the importance of passing to set up the shot, which is the basic element in teamwork. (4) "Shooting" approach: helping the children fulfill their individual desires of wanting to shoot baskets by emphasizing instruction on that skill. Differences in attitudes toward physical educaiton courses and group skills were seen among the four structured approaches. The students undergoing the "Image" approach performed better in the questionnaire on attitudes toward physical education courses and in group skills than did the students undergoing the "Evolutionary" or "Shooting" approaches. The students undergoing the "Image" approach also scored higher in attitudes toward physical education courses than did the students who underwent the "Combination" approach.