The Purpose of this study was to clear the relation between the student's question for the phenomenon and the students fixation for his learning content, when this study was carried out, the quality of student's question which is difference by each student on the process of realization of problem was noticed. At first, the classification for the "question type" that the student felt only some questions and the "hypothesis type" that the student predicted to relation of cause and effect by his pervious experiments was compared on the pretest and posttest. As then results, the following facts were clear. The percentage of right answers on the "hypothesis type"was higher than the "question type". And, as the learning proceeded the change to the "hypothesis type" from the " question type" was happened and the percentage of right answers was also higher on the changed students.
The purpose of this study was to review the theory of welfare education as the basic concept of making home economics curriculum concerning welfare and the elderly, and also to develop and try a lesson plan based on the theory of welfare education. The lesson plan contained three major aspects which are to develop the recognition of human rights, to make students realize the actual situation of welfare in our country , and to develop students' critical thinking and problem solving competencies. The lesson was given to the classes in the 3rd grade of Junior High School attached to the Fukui University. The main results are as follows : (1) Students' consciousness to support elderly people has changed from emotional stage to more active and problem solving stage. (2) Students who received this lesson have shown much more intention to study various themes regarding welfare and the elderly than those who did not, suggesting the usefulness of this kind of approach.
In this paper, I examine "reasoning" , which was proposed under the educational reform in 1980's in America. Reasoning is understood as several meanings ; it is classified into associationism and cognitivism in learning theory, and the meaning of reasoning from the cognitive view has two interpretations : "formal reasoning" and "informal reasoning" . Informal reasoning has same ideas to abilities in the renewed Japanese curriculum, so it can be considered as one of the proposed abilities in new curriculum. Moreover, I examine which reasoning is used in each levels of technologies. In Secondary level, informal reasoning is specially important, and new viewpoints for abilities in Secondary Technology Education is established.
The purpose of this study is to explore about the relationships between the performance in problem solving strategies and the performance in word problems based on the framework for scoring performance of problem solving strategies developed in the author's previous studies. To do it, the tasks of six types of problem solving strategies and the word problems were investigated by using 131 sixth-grade children who had not been taught explicitly on problem solving strategies. Their performance was scored and analyzed. As a result, the following finding mainly were found out. (1) There were significant differences between the higher group and the others with respect to the total performance in problem solving strategies. (2) There were significant differences between the higher group and the others with respect to the performance in problem solving strategies for planning. (3) What characterized the differences between the higher group and the others with respect to the performance in problem solving strategies for planning were mainly based on the "quality" and "accuracy" of the strategies used by the children.
When subject education are discussed in educational turning point now, the author wishes to build up the ideal and philosophical foundation of mathematics education on the standpoint of the importance of their characteristics of science and arts, especially mathematics of which the author is a teacher, and their relationship between them and humanity. Firstly, the viewpoints of humanity and knowledge are analyzed, and then Social Constructivism in many philosophies on mathematics now categorized are examined under the viewpoints. The author describe the application of Social Constructivism, which is to be proper for the disseminating mathematics education, to mathematics education in connection with the view of knowledge in Social Constructivism. Furthermore, the author describe whether learning under Social Constructivism is consistent with subjective learning or not, and investigate some requisites for shifting to Social Constructivistic mathematics education. The result of the study showed that learning in Social Constructivism was consistent with subjective learning. Teacher's fallibilist viewpoint of mathematics is main factor for shifting to present disseminating mathematics education.
In this paper, I gave an account of cognitive significance of problem making and its implication for mathematical problem solving ability, focusing on the activity of similar problem making after the solution of mathematical problem. I explained that similar problem making is based on the abstraction of "conditions" and "goal" of problem, by analyzing the cognitive process of structural similality between the problems of different contexts. Then I indicated that through this abstraction, it is possible to construct the knowledge of general problem solving process which takes the form of " when (conditions) are given and we want to get (goal), we can solve the problem by following (solution plan)", and pointed out that this knowledge is related to the development of problem solving ability. Subsequently, I carried out an investigation to inquire the effect of making a problem similar to the original upon the solution of similar problem. It is the findings that similar problem making is effective for the students who have experience in making problem, but of no effect for the students who have not such experience.
This study was designed to provide children with instructional exposure to non-canonical number sentence forms and to examine whether or not children would use structure-based forms to represent and solve addition and subtraction word problems after instruction. The study was carried out with 25 second-graders in a pretest/posttest framework. Before instruction the children were very successful in representing and solving word problems with canonical number sentences. After instruction they were successful in writing non-canonical number sentences to reflect the semantic structure of each word problem. They were also successful to write canonical number sentences to find answers with the figure. This result suggests that non-canonical number sentences can be instructed to second graders for teaching of representation based on the semantic structure of addition and subtraction word problems.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the problems of curriculum of Homemaking at elementary school. The questionnaires were sent to 270 elementary school teachers of Homemaking all over the country. 65.2 % of them were collected. The results were as follows : 1. As to the name of subject, 35.8% of answerers desired to change Homemaking into Life Environment. 2. Homemaking education of the lower classes were needed. 3. To divide an area "Family Living and Housing" in Homemaking Education into two areas were needed. 4. Many answers desired to introduce consumer education, environmental education, and well-being education into Homemaking education. 5. To clarify the aim of Homemaking education were expected.