The purpose of this study was to determine how the processing of whole fish in cooking classes affected the recognition of junior high school students regarding the value of fish. This was done by comparing the cooking of whole and sliced fish. Comparisons were also made in some cases by giving guidance to build students' awareness that they were eating a living thing and in others by giving no guidance. Both before and after the class questionnaires were completed and the students' comments during the class were analyzed. These results are presented as follows; 1) It was discovered that when cooking a whole fish compared to sliced fish the students' awareness of "eating a living thing" was more pronounced when the teacher guidance was given than when there was no instruction in this area, 2) Through the discussion in the cooking class, the students' feelings of appreciation of life and how this was connected to the cooking of whole fish could be seen. In particular, these feelings of appreciation and awareness were more pronounced when guidance was given. The results of the research showed that using whole fish as the medium for the study was appropriate and effective. In addition, the purpose was successfully achieved through helping the students to understand that they were eating a living thing.
This study focuses on what evaluators take into consideration when evaluating Japanese learners' performance in conversation. For this purpose, we presented video recordings of conversations between Japanese language learners and the author to the evaluators (Japanese language learners, ordinary Japanese speakers, native teachers and as non-native teachers) and asked for their views on each learner's performance. We then analyzed the similarities and differences between evaluators. The results suggest that the evaluation criterion that all evaluators pay the most attention to is 'pronunciation'. Evaluators also have characteristic criteria. Learners pay attention to 'comprehensibility', 'vocabulary' and 'affective variables' in evaluating their own performance. Native speakers consider that 'impression' is the most important. The criterion common to the teachers is that they consider the learners' 'proficiency level'. In particular, native teachers tend to be more severe in their evaluation of learners' 'grammar' whereas non-native teachers have the common belief that 'utterance' and 'strategy to make the conversation go smoothly' are very important criteria for evaluation.
The present study attempted to analyze the process of formative evaluation in basketball classes using a formative evaluation system for basketball and a formative evaluation system for the structural features of basketball. The main findings were as follows: 1. Comparing the summative evaluation with the diagnostic evaluation, the scores of all the factors on the summative evaluation were higher. Analyzing the formative evaluation, the scores of all the factors were higher than before the classes. 2. The teaching/learning process of basketball was made possible by the structural features system connected with the technique, strategy, task-games, drill-games, evaluations and teacher support.
The purpose of this study was to identify the concerns and the challenges of pre-service teachers in teaching physical education at the Faculty of School Education, Hiroshima University. Furthermore, this study aims to clarify what advice was effective for coping with the concerns and the challenges of these pre-service teachers. The results are summarized as follows; 1) The pre-service teachers were very conscious of classroom management as a task for five weeks; 2) In order to cope with this task, they receive practical knowledge of teaching through conversations with mentors and colleagues; 3) The mentors had better demonstrate their physical education lessons as a model to pre-service teachers after the second week of school experience; 4) It is recommended that theoretical knowledge of the aims and objectives of physical education is taught after the actual school experience to enable reflection and development of practical knowledge.
With the advent of a global society, students are increasingly required to choose their own position among a variety of perspectives on a global issue, and to express their own opinion in logical English. This leads to the issue of how many questions on global topics there are in English entrance examinations and textbooks. The results show that, although there are a few excellent questions, the total number of them on global issues is very limited.
The purposes of this study are to clarify (1) which linguistic abilities both in English and Japanese contribute to the English listening ability of Japanese high school students, and (2) to what extent their meta-cognitive abilities are involved in their listening performance. The analyses were carried out using a statistical package (SPSS Ver10.1). Nine language tests, including listening, reading and cloze tests, both in English and Japanese, were given to 80 Japanese high school students. In addition, in order to analyze their metacognitive abilities used while listening, questionnaires were conducted just after the listening comprehension tests. By using a factor analysis, seven factors were extracted for listening to English and listening to Japanese. Multiple regression analyses were performed, with the score of the English listening comprehension test as the dependent variable, and with the scores of the tests or factors in English and Japanese as independent variables. The results showed that the most important element contributing to Japanese high school students' English listening comprehension is English linguistic ability, above all, the ability of aural recognition of English words.
This research investigates the possibilities and limits of teachers' use of the mother tongue in Japanese Language classes. The teachers and students of Japanese conversation classes at seven universities in Taiwan were asked to fill out a questionnaire on the above topic. The results show that teachers' use of the mother tongue decreases as the students proceed to upper grades. On the other hand, the factor affecting the students' opinion is the mother tongue of the teachers. Where students are taught by Taiwanese (non-native) Japanese language teachers they expect the teachers to use the mother tongue more as compared to the students taught by native Japanese language teachers.
The purpose of this paper is to examine what type of speech sample is appropriate when speaking fundamental frequency of children are measured. A survey of existing literature and the results of our own investigation suggest that: (1) the pitches of natural and spontaneous speech, vocalization of one's name, and counting numbers aloud, are almost equal. (2) the pitch of prose reading is higher than that of vocalization of one's name. (3) the pitch of vocalization of one's name gradually decreases with age. Considering these findings, we concluded that the vocalization of one's name may be the most appropriate speech sample with which speaking fundamental frequency of children are measured.
With this report, I grasped a study trend of Japanese language education studies mainly on articles from "Kokugo-ka-Kyouiku(Japanese Language and Literatue in Education)" carried 1998 to 2002 and surveyed a study. Characteristics of researches was found as follows, 1) Accumulation of a study of the history of a literacy formation process being seen in studies of history of national language education, 2)In comparative studies on first language education studies, most researchers represented descriptive studies of a country, but a few researchers made comparative studies of two countries' first language education. This would be a germ for further studies in future. 3) Reclamation of a study method of proof having been done about class study / teacher study / learning person study / development study each, 4)An examination about teaching materials value in Japanese language instruction having been pushed forward, 5)Some studies to investigate a constitution principle of a Japanese language curriculum as a scaffold nursing literacy was pushed forward. It is a big problem to push forward a study to aim at rebuilding of literacy education and research as letting the teacher training/ teacher education curriculum of Japanese language and literature reflect accumulated results of research and curriculum studies.