The purpose of this research is to show the effectiveness of anonymous expression in a face-to-face class. We conducted an experiment to investigate students' feelings using an e-mail system which enabled them to express their thoughts anonymously. First, from comparing students' feelings about anonymous expression and non-anonymous expression, we could show how students felt. There were five effects of anonymous expression: "It was easy for students to express what they found hard to say"; "Students didn't feel embarrassed when they expressed themselves"; "Students felt that they came to be able to understand the contents of the lecture"; "Students felt the necessity to express themselves"; and "Students came to participate in a class actively". Finally, "many students accepted the use of anonymous remarks in a class." Next, from the results of multiple-regression analysis, we showed both "students' motivation to participate in a class actively" and "students' anxiety about poor performance and embarrassment to express themselves in front of many people" had a positive effect on the degree of acceptance of the use of anonymous remarks. But "students' motivation for improvement - i.e. avoidance of anonymous remarks and worry about the costs involved" had a negative effect on the degree of acceptance. As a result, because using "anonymous remarks" helps students express themselves easily and participate in a class actively, it is good for a teacher to use this method.
Elementary school English activities place great importance on listening and speaking in order to develop children's motivation for studying English. This paper aims to examine the relationship between students' performances in listening comprehension. The participants were 72 fourth graders (45 boys and 27 girls) and 85 fifth graders (41 boys and 44 girls) of an elementary school. According to the results of a path analysis, it was found that the path of fourth graders was simpler than that of fifth graders. It could also be observed that a positive effect on perceived competence in fifth graders indicated performance in the listening test, but the positive effect on perceived competence could not be found for fourth graders. It is probable that fostering enjoyment of, and interest in, English is an appropriate part of a teaching methodology for fourth graders. However, it is likely that, for fifth graders, a sound method of instruction which improves listening comprehension skills leads to greater self-confidence in English.
The aim of this study is to the substantial constitution study unit that solves legal and social problems, based on the idea of the constitution, and examines the function of the constitution in society. In this unit, children learn the idea of the constitution, its social functions and its use as a criterion to solve legal and social problems. It is shown in this study that it is of great importance to foster citizens who form a democratic society based on the idea of the constitution.
In this study, 60 college students majoring in psychology made evaluations of the instructional factors of a lecturer, and the teaching strategy was improved based on the feedback from the evaluations. This procedure was repeated for each lecture. Which of the lecturer's instructional factors increased the students' understanding and satisfaction was examined. The following became clear as a result of this study: 1) To utilize teaching strategies that reduce cognitive overload increases "degree of satisfaction"; 2) To teach skills such as critically thinking and taking notes increases "level of understanding"; 3) "Degree of satisfaction" and "level of understanding" are increased through enhancement of the students' self-monitoring competence by constructing a participants structure in which the lecturer and students communicate dialogically.
In order to clarify the aims of observation and experiment activities, a survey was carried out. The survey asked the three questions below. A questionnaire method was used. The questionnaire was composed of 16 items. 366 elementary school teachers and 255 junior high school teachers took part in this survey. Factor analysis was used to clarify the aims of observation and experiment activities. Questions (1) What factors can be seen from elementary teachers' responses ? (2) What factors can be seen from junior high school teachers' responses ? (3) What relationships can be seen between elementary school and junior high school teachers ? The results are summarized below. (1) Two factors were identified in elementary teachers' responses. Factor 1 concerns problem-solving skills and acquiring principles & law, whilst factor 2 concerns humanity. (2) Three factors were identified in junior high school teachers' responses. They were problem-solving skills (factor 3), acquiring principles & laws (factor 4), and humanity (factor 5). (3) Factor 1 corresponds to factors 3 and 4. Factor 2 corresponds to factor 5. There are some differences between elementary school and junior high school teachers.
In kindergarten education, enriching the content of childcare with regard to nature connects improvement for children in life environmental studies and science education in elementary school. In this thesis, changes in the content of childcare with regard to nature in kindergarten education are surveyed, and how this content should be developed in the future is discussed. At first, when kindergartens were established, the content of childcare was indirect and consisted of a type of cramming knowledge. Thereafter, as a whole, it has changed to consider that direct experience and independence of young children are important. As for what childcare should be in the future, four items are mentioned: (1) the connection between life environment studies and science education; (2) formation of sensitivity towards nature; (3) intellectual development through an understanding of nature; and (4) support for community and family.