This paper attempts to consider what kinds of abilities and qualities are to be expected of Japanese teachers of English QTE) both in pre-service and in-service teacher development, especially in terms of promoting intercultural education in the field of teaching English as a Foreign Language. First, it is to be pointed out that on both the current pre-service and in-service teacher development programs, the development of JTEs' intercultural competence seems to be absent. Furthermore, there still exist cultural conflicts and misunderstandings in mutual communication between JTEs and Assistant English Teachers (AETs) in team-teaching. Taking these issues into account, this paper implies that part of this problem could result from the lack of the ability to explain (including the willingness to explain) how educational activities are conducted in Japanese middle schools on the part of JTEs. Finally, as one of the means to develop JTEs' ability to explain issues in Japanese school settings, two approaches are proposed: comparing educational culture, and using cultural conflicts and misunderstandings as material for mutual understanding.
The physical education for Living had been actively developed after the Second World War in Japan. That had gradually changed the viewpoint to the cultural movement because of the issue of the Course of Study with restriction of law. It is the objective of the present study that we investigate how the advocators' theories of physical education for Living changed during the transform. The present study is to investigate the change of the Maekawa's theory of his view of the objective of physical education and the concrete objective of the physical education. We refer books and treatises by Dr. Mineo Maekawa, the mostrepresentative theorist of physical education for living in Japan: the Method of Physical Education in 1954, the treatise in 1958 about Maekawa's stance on the objective of physical education in the Course of Study and the Method of Physical Education in 1961 and so on. Revealed results are as follows 1. More specific objective of physical education, such as building force and effective movement life were derived from general objective of physical education. 2. From the model such as physical movement → physical movement life → physical life field, the education through physical activities developed. 3. Complicated objective such as objective of physical education, objective of general and objective of specific turned to simple objective of physical education and their contents mainly became physical activities. 4. The objective of physical education turned to the realization of handy objectives instead of setting objectives as the main task, and the policy that emphasize the process of physical education revealed itself.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the principle of the liberalistic approach in law-related education, based on analysis of a constitutional studies project in the United States: The Bill of Rights: A User's Guide. The following three principles were identified. Constitutional studies should help students to: (1) Discriminate between law and morals by knowing the historical background of each article in the Bill of Rights; (2) Understand and discuss the dynamic history and development of the Bill of Rights from an internal point of view; (3) Discuss actual Supreme Court cases and draw conclusions based on such discussion from an external point of view. This paper suggests the importance of the principles mentioned above when considering constitutional studies in Japanese social studies education.
A study was conducted to clarify the effects of joint classes in physical education. The focus of this investigation was dance classes practiced by 5th and 7th grade students. Student evaluations of joint classes were investigated by analyzing students' formative evaluation of physical education classes (Hasegawa et al., 1995) and pre- and post-questionnaires on attitudes. The main results were as follows: (1) The pre-questionnaires revealed that 5th grade students hoped for "joining together"; (2) The total formative evaluation scores of 7th grade students placed them at level 5 on a diagnostic scale while the scores for 5th graders placed them at level 4; (3) The post-questionnaire scores for 5th graders were generally higher than those of 7th graders; (4) Both the formative evaluation scores and the post-questionnaire scores were generally higher for females than for males. It seemed that there was a difference in the way of thinking between 5th graders, who were nervous due to inexperience in the subject, and 7th graders who did have experience. It was further revealed that there was a difference in the feelings of male and female students.
The purpose of this research is to develop a method of analysis for carrying out the development of the athletic ability of using hand apparatus. It is necessary to develop clear instructional techniques relating to teachers' understanding of how children's actually use hand apparatus. It is thought that in such a case an objective index is indispensable. However, there is currently no such objective index for the operation of hand apparatus. Moreover, a method for developing one has not been established, either. Therefore, the use of hand apparatus by children was deconstructed and then analyzed with regard to the development of instructional materials. Consequently, four viewpoints for analysis became clear. One (the 'Form-viewpoint') can be considered as the underlying method of analysis. The other three help to further develop this basic viewpoint. They are as follows: the 'Phase-viewpoint', the 'Guidance-method-viewpoint', and the 'Movement-structural-viewpoint'. Furthermore, the correlation between these viewpoints were developed into a model of analysis and it was proposed that an understanding of how children actually use hand apparatus, how they reflect on their use of it, how they are taught and the way in which they move their hands, could be understood as a whole.
In the Nara plan, the 'Framework for the Teaching of Home Economics' was the basis for the study of home economics. It was made by distributing the content of the 'Course of Study for Home Economics in the fiscal year 1947' to a framework based on the concept of 'scope', which covers clothes, food, housing, manners, etc., and also on the concept of 'sequence', which deals with children's developmental stages. It was also developed based on children's investigation of the above. However, this framework focused only on housework and sewing. This home economics ability was planned so that it was learnt through school years 1-6 in 'shigoto' (work), 'keiko' (practice) and 'nakayoshi' (friendship). 'Shigoto' was study which originated in the will of the child and in which the child's energy was expended continuously and progressively. It was planned as a core curriculum placed mainly within social studies and the sciences. The home economics ability included in 'shigoto' related to study leading to the recognition of 'open family-life'. This was an aim of the 'Course of Study for Home Economics in the fiscal year 1947'. This is because 'shigoto' addressed the same problem-solving ideas as this course of study.
The present article aims to find out which behavioral characteristics are associated with "outstanding" Japanese language teachers by students of Japanese language both at secondary schools and universities. A questionnaire consisting of 37 items, modified from past studies, was employed, and administered to 280 high school students and 222 university students. The data were subjected to statistical testing by means of factor analysis and structural equation modeling. It was predicted that there would be some difference between high school students and university students in how they felt about "outstanding" teachers, but it was found there was no significant difference between them. There was a statistically significant difference among the three groups according to the duration of their Japanese study. Concerning the former, the factors which students evaluated high were factors HI ('facilitating the classroom atmosphere') and VI ('Japanese language ability and cultural knowledge'). The latter were grouped into two: those factors for which the evaluation progressed from high to low (Factor I ('teaching skill')) and those that experienced a continual decline year by year (factors II ('specialist knowledge and cultural level'), IV ('concern for learners and professionalism as a teacher') and V ('teaching experience and qualifications')).
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether strategies that were hypothesized as promoting metacognition were actually effective in boosting metacognitive knowledge during classes teaching "Integrated Studies." The first step was to create a set of questionnaires to measure metacognitive knowledge and establish self-monitoring activities that promote metacognition, which is the method of this study. Next, we put this into practice with a class of fifth-grade elementary school students. The results of the questionnaires, which were administered both before and after the class, suggested the following three points. First, self-monitoring activities that promote metacognition are effective in increasing metacognitive knowledge. Second, five factors of metacognitive knowledge were extracted for analysis. These factors were: problem solving, decision-making/checking, understanding/insight, communication, and understanding/correction. An investigation of these factors shows that while this method is effective for factors such as decision-making/checking, it has almost no impact on the factor understanding/ correction. Third, this method is likely to be more effective on children who have high levels of metacognition than those who have low levels of metacognition. These results showed that while this method is effective for increasing metacognitive knowledge, there is variance in its effectiveness, which is based on the factorial dimensions of metacognitive knowledge and metacognitive aptitude.
The purpose of the present study is to investigate the relationship between proficiency level in listening comprehension and the use of listening comprehension strategies by Japanese junior high school students learning English as a Foreign Language. The subjects in the present research were 91 third-year students in a junior high school. They were classified into a High group, Middle group, and Low group according to scores on a listening comprehension test. They were then given a questionnaire in order to identify listening comprehension strategies used in listening comprehension tasks. The ANOVA identified significant differences in strategy use by successful and less successful learners. Successful learners used metacognitive strategies such as planning and monitoring more frequently than less successful learners. Also, we can claim that successful learners take an interactive approach in applying top-down and bottom-up processes while they do listening comprehension tasks. The article concludes with a discussion of the use of strategy instruction in the classroom for developing learners' listening skills.