Recently, an increasing number of so-called "Super English Language High Schools" have been established all across the country including a couple of high schools in Okinawa Prefecture. This educational movement makes the writer think that it is meaningful to go back to the starting point of English language teaching which began at Okinawa Shun Middle School early in the Meiji period. The chief aim of this paper is to examine the development of the English language curriculum in the Middle School and the Girls' High School during the Meiji period in Okinawa Prefecture, to consider the reasons behind the curriculum and to gain some useful insights from this analysis. The main finding of this study is as follows: The Middle School curriculum was changed three times before English was made compulsory in 1897. The changes were as follows: In the Foundation Period (1881〜1885), there was no English language teaching, and then English was included as a subject in the regular curriculum for about nine years, followed by the three-year optional English period, and finally English was made compulsory as mentioned above. The English curriculum developed in 1903 for the First Okinawa Prefectural Middle School was formally similar to that in other prefectures. Five years later English became a regular subject for the first time at the Girls' High School. The writer refers to the eight English textbooks based on the middle school curriculum used in those days. He further continues to try to clarify the context of English teaching before summing up his main points in the final section of this study.
The aim of this study is to examine schoolchildren's understanding of scales of the size of animals. We asked university students to guess the scale of the size of animals, and to guess the animal which fitted their own scales. Based on the results, we asked schoolchildren to choose the biggest animal from a giraffe, an elephant and a snake shown at fictitious sizes, and to choose the biggest animal from a giraffe, an elephant and a snake shown in their real sizes. We compared the answers among the second, fourth, and sixth graders. The findings of this study are as follows: 1) Many university students used height, weight and length as scales for the size of animals. They estimated a giraffe to be the highest animal, an elephant to be the heaviest animal, and a snake to be the longest animal. 2) When we showed a giraffe, an elephant and a snake at fictitious sizes, the second graders thought about the biggest animal using a scale of height, but the fourth and the sixth graders thought about the biggest animal using scales of weight and length. 3) When we showed them the animals in their real sizes, the second graders thought about the biggest animal using a scale of height, but the fourth and sixth graders thought about the biggest animal using a scale of weight.
Although the pitch reproduction skills of an average child when singing in unison are accurate, when singing in chorus an immaturity in pitch recognition is exposed. When singing in a two-part chorus it becomes difficult for many children to reproduce pitches precisely. To solve this problem it is essential to promote the systematic development of children's pitch recognition skills through the development of correct pitch recognition in a two-part chorus. This research, which was carried out over a two month period, took the form of a musical education program employing an exercise approach to develop a system of pitch recognition for students of all grades. To confirm whether it was possible to sing in two voices, that is to say, to determine clearly whether the acquisition of the chorus skill was effective or not, a pretest and posttest were carried out with two groups. The results showed that this education program can effectively guide both those children without the skill to sing in a 2-part chorus correctly, and those children who have underdeveloped skills in pitch recognition.
In order to train the ability for speaking and listening, we should train the ability to direct our attention to cognitive features and the ability to process data effectively. The "knowledge" for effective data processing involves the knowledge for doing algorithms and the knowledge of algorithms to solve the problems for data processing. Perfecting them involves training speaking and listening abilities. Therefore, I considered how to process data by focusing on the case of junior high school students' understanding of a soliloquy. Following this, the actual situation could be clarified as follows: Junior high school students cannot divide information; they cannot grasp correlation and macroscopic constitution by making use of knowledge about constructions. I think that this is caused by a lack of classification ability and a lack of training in the conscious understanding of informational relationships. From now on, I would like to investigate other cases and consider in various ways the actual situation regarding cognitive features of junior high school students.
This paper reports the results of a five-month research project in Finland on English language education at primary schools. Since the publication of the 2003 PISA results by the OECD in December 2004, more and more educators and researchers in Japan have been focusing their attention on school education in Finland, especially on their literacy and mathematics education. In the context of comparison between Japan and Finland, however, much more attention should be given to English language education in Finland, since English learners there have achieved top levels of attainment in some international comparisons of English proficiency as in TOEFL. Putting their foreign language education in a wider context of school education in general, this paper discloses how English is taught and tested at primary schools in Finland on the basis of extensive classroom observations, and also investigates English teachers' perceptions and beliefs concerning English language education at primary schools through questionnaires and interviews.
It is important for students to consider and create a sketch of an idea before production. This paper aims to analyse actual sketches in the design phase. We examined 148 junior high school students' sketches with the following results: 1. There are five types of students' drawing: "Changing drawing", "Free drawing", "Production drawing", "Measuring drawing", and "No idea drawing". 2. "Production drawing" and "Measuring drawing" are thought of as problem-solving in the design phase. 3. "Changing drawing" and "Free drawing" are thought of being creative about an idea in the design phase. 4. "No idea drawing" is drawn by students who felt him/herself to have no idea. As a result, this study highlights teaching/learning about the relation between the design process and types of sketches.
The purpose of this study is to reveal the position of social learning (Soziales Lernen) in school music education in Germany. The educational function of music classes in schools includes not only musical learning, such as acquiring the ability to sing songs, play instruments, listen to music or read music, but also social learning, that has a wide effect on students' daily lives. All music curricula for primary and secondary education in 16 federal states in Germany were analyzed in this study. The analysis shows a marked tendency that most of the curricula lay a special emphasis on social learning in music classes. Social learning is practiced intensively, especially in thematic teaching or correlated curricula, which approaches the traditional fields of learning in school music education both flexibly and comprehensively. Behind this situation, it is pointed out that Klafki's plan "Key Problems (Schliisselprobleme)" prevails in school music education in all the federal states in Germany. In addition, evaluation criteria of music classes embrace social behavior and social competence acquired through social learning. This also shows the importance of social learning in music classes. Music classes have a function as a "free space (Freiraum)" where students work together freely in order to acquire social competence, and this importance is rooted in the music curricula of all the federal states in Germany.
This study aims to clarify the relationship between test scores and learners' opinions on teachers' use of the mother tongue in Japanese conversation classes. The research was carried out in conversation classes in three grade levels at five universities in Taiwan. 133 students in classes taught by Taiwanese teachers and 157 students in classes taught by Japanese teachers participated in the survey. Questions in the survey focused on the following three points: "Necessity of the use of the mother tongue," "Advantage of the use of the mother tongue," and "Disadvantage of the use of the mother tongue." Test scores were collected using SPOT (Simple Performance-Oriented Test). Assuming that learners' opinions on teachers' use of the mother tongue affected the test scores, the following model "「Necessity of the use of the mother tongue」→ 「Advantage of the use of the mother tongue」 「Disadvantage of the use of the mother tongue」→「Test scores」" was analyzed by using Path Analysis, taking grade levels and teachers' mother tongues as variables. The result showed that learners' opinions on the necessity of the use of the mother tongue had a direct negative impact on test scores, and that learners' opinions on advantages / disadvantages of the use of the mother tongue partly had an indirect negative effect on test scores.
A cross-sectional study on vocal pitch matching abilities, pitch discrimination abilities, and skills at the separation of a singing voice from a speaking voice of first to sixth grade elementary school students (n=437) was conducted to explore students' vocal pitch accuracies in singing, and associated abilities and skills. The following results were obtained: (1) Second grade students may develop vocal pitch matching abilities significantly. Second and third grade students may develop pitch discrimination abilities significantly. (2) There were hardly any differences among percentages of the levels of vocal pitch matching ability from fourth to sixth grade students. (3) Students with a high level of vocal pitch matching ability had both significantly more accurate pitch discrimination abilities and higher skills at the separation of a singing voice from a speaking voice than students with a low level of vocal pitch matching ability. (4) Regarding students with a low level of vocal pitch matching ability, there were many students who had both inaccurate pitch discrimination abilities and low skills at the separation of a singing voice from a speaking voice, and some students who had one of these two features. (5) Regarding students with a low level of vocal pitch matching ability, there were many first and second grade students who had both inaccurate pitch discrimination abilities and low skills at the separation of a singing voice from a speaking voice. There were many third and fourth grade students who had one of these two features. Finally, there were many fifth and sixth grade students who had both accurate pitch discrimination abilities and high skills at the separation of a singing voice from a speaking voice.
The present paper explores recent trends and suggests some prospects in research on art education, based on the analysis of the contents of papers published by two academic organizations: The Association of Art Education and the University Association of Art Education. The results revealed that papers dealing with computers, art appreciation, and life-long learning have been increasing within the past 20 years. These issues represent present-day problems in the field. In recent issues of the journal of The Association of Art Education there have been many papers addressing the expansion of the aims of art education, especially art appreciation and also the application of IT in art education. In addition, as regards theoretical papers, there are many focusing on historical research approaches and historical studies, as well as papers looking at particular art educators and ideas about art education. It is expected that in the future, research will be carried out to integrate practice and theory, to activate criticism, and to transmit information in the field of art education.