Cooperative interactions among students play a very important role in Japanese language education. This study tries to clarify the roles and effects of cooperative interactions among students when they revise their writing. By analyzing opinions written by students as well as criticisms against them by other students, this study found: 1) that the students mostly revise their opinions by accommodating criticisms they receive, 2) that they accommodate criticisms by selectively accepting them or transforming them, and 3) that, however, when criticisms are vague without showing any concrete means for revisions, they are often ignored.
This paper attempts to investigate the similarities and particularity of how physical education (abbreviated to PE) is treated in Syria and Jordan, from the aspects of the position of PE in the educational system, the characteristics of school PE, and the teacher training system for PE. In both countries, there is a strong focus on the formation of character as 'a member of Arabic society' in the field of PE. This tendency is much higher in Syria. In Jordan, in addition to the formation of character as an Arabian, there is a focus on the formation of character as a Muslim. As regards requirements for PE teachers, practical skills and athletic ability are strongly required in Syria. On the other hand, academic knowledge is more likely to be required in Jordan. As stated above, there are both similarities and differences in the PE systems, which come from the difference in the respective social backgrounds.
In this paper a curriculum for the high jump for elementary school children is proposed based on our previous findings related to the developmental process for running and jumping, the optimum time for learning the running high jump (scissors jump), possibilities for learning the Fosbury Flop, and so on. First and second grade students should be able to do a one-leg jump, skip, etc. (various jumps), and they should also be able to jump down from a high place and land safely. Third grade students should learn the rubber jump with a run-up and one foot take-off. Fourth grade students should learn the 'scissors jump' with a short run-up and focus on the ability to clear the bar. The next stage for students is to discover how to clear the bar from an appropriate take-off position. Fifth grade students should do the 'scissors jump' with a short run-up. Following this, the 'scissors jump' should be studied from the skill of clearing the bar to the skill of taking off. In the latter half of the unit there is a shift to learning the Fosbury Flop. For sixth grade students the HJS index is 90 points. Junior high school students are expected to be able to complete the Fosbury Flop (HJS index: 100 points).
The purpose of this paper was to investigate the effectiveness of local folk songs as teaching materials in music education by conducting classes using Akita folk songs and analysing and considering their effects on students. Comparison was made by dividing the students into three groups: (a) a group which did not learn any folk songs; (b) a group which learned only Akita folk songs; (c) a group which learned both Akita and Okinawa folk songs. Analysis was made on data collected from two questionnaires. Questionnaire 1, utilizing the SD method (20 questions), revealed three elements related to the image of folk songs: affinity, musical features and regional understanding. Questionnaire 2 revealed three elements: heightened interest in and deepened understanding of the region; musical features and positive attitude; general increase of pride for Akita folk songs. From these data, it has become clear that studying folk songs leads to the formation of "an understanding of the traditional music culture of the region and an attitude of respect," and comprehensively enhances students' belief in the value of music classes, deepened their appreciation for traditional Japanese music and understanding toward their homeland. Furthermore, it was found that providing more than one educational tool for comparison purposes proved more effective in the teaching of folk song lessons.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the influence of study experience about the elderly in home economics education upon "Level of concern for the elderly" and "Level of support for the elderly". We conducted a survey of over 1200 high school students. The class content which high school students experienced the most was "explanations and lectures about the elderly", followed by "experiencing life as an elderly person". The class content high school students were most interested in was "experiencing life as an elderly person", followed by "exchanges with the elderly in the local area". The students with experience of studying about the elderly had a higher level for the "Level of concern for the elderly" and the "Level of support for the elderly" than students without this experience. Study experience which involved students coming into direct contact with the elderly had a bigger influence on "Level of concern for the elderly" and "Level of support for the elderly" than study experience without such direct contact.