In this project we analyzed how learners deal with the situation in which learning stalls. This was achieved by looking at the pupils' use of imitation in a science experiment on "The Dissolution of Substances". When pupils' learning process stalled, they dealt with the situation by using imitation. Learners adopted the way of using imitation, according to their own context of experiment (i.e., "higher-level imitation", not "simple imitation"). As a result, it is suggested that learners achieved a higher-level of imitation through the process of trial and error by designing and carrying out experiments repeatedly.
The aim of this study is to examine a verbalization activity between students with a role of 'gatekeeper' and students with a role of 'end-user'. We examined the second graders' conversations in science classes in at the lower secondary school level, and examined their level of achievement. We compared the contents of the conversations between different students with different achievement levels. The findings of this study are as follows: the students taking a role of 'gatekeeper' appeared spontaneously; the students with a role of 'gatekeeper' and students with a role of 'end-user' talked about matters that they themselves had experienced and talked about the knowledge that they were able to learn; among the students with a role of 'gatekeeper', there were some students with good grades and others with poorer grades.
The purpose of this study was to clarify and systematize viewpoints in observing and evaluating ball-bouncing movements (BBM) by elementary school children. Using hand apparatus such as a ball is very interesting to children, though difficult at the initial stage. Teachers are faced with situations where children use different varieties of BBM. Observational viewpoints need establishing in order to identify movement features so that assessment criteria can be developed. We approached this task by videotaping a group of third grade elementary school children engaged in BBM for 20 seconds and analyzing it using two methods: "impression observation" and "comparison observation". The following results were obtained: 1) Among the 21 viewpoints we established, some of the prominent ones were "stability and balance", "hand-ball contact time" and "ending and stretching of knees" in the impression observation, and "the height of a bounce" and "opening and shutting of legs" in the comparison observation. 2) "The height of a bounce" and "hand-ball contact time" were found to heavily influence teachers' observation and evaluation of BBM. 3) These tendencies demonstrated that the impression observation evaluates general movement and the comparison observation evaluates partial movement. Furthermore, we suggested an observation model based on these systematized viewpoints.
The purpose of this article is to examine how seven non-English education major university students reflect on "English activities" in an elementary school through their teaching journals and to discuss what problems they face during the English activities and how they attempt to solve the problems. The study showed that the university students gave positive and negative evaluations on various events in the classes and made new discoveries as "novice English teachers". The problems they faced were brought about by their poor management of the activities and games, their lack of knowledge about the elementary pupils' level of English, etc. In addition, the university students are likely to not only identify problems or failures but also seek the causes behind the problems and attempt to make further improvements.