The purpose of this study was to compare the teaching units on the expression of thoughts and feelings in writing between elementary school first language textbooks in Japan and the United States. The author investigated 12 Japanese textbooks (Grades 5 and 6;two volumes for each grade) published by three publishing companies (Mitsumura Tosho, Tokyo Shoseki, Kyoiku Shuppan) and one US textbook (Grade 5) published by Houghton Mifflin Company. The results showed that there were two types of units (writing to express an opinion, writing to persuade) in the US textbook and three types (writing to research something, writing to solve a problem, writing to reflect on oneself) in the Japanese textbooks. While the US textbook regarded writing as a recursive process and taught a variety of writing skills, the Japanese ones did not do so. Further, some suggestions regarding Japanese textbooks were derived from these findings.
Based upon the results of the "Questionnaire Survey Regarding Death" conducted with 228 second-year public elementary school students, we developed an educational program on the topic of death and analyzed it. As part of our intervention study, a four-hour lesson on the topic "Thinking about Life and Death Regarding Oneself and One's Family" was taught to a second-year class of 34 students. When we used the learning material (2) "Love Letter to (a student's name) (second version)" in the first lesson, in which students in a group each give comments on themselves, 20 students expressed their intention to share with their classmates how happy they were to have received many heartwarming comments from members of their group. In the second lesson, we provided the students with statements by 18 students regarding how they felt when someone close to them died. This was part of our class strategy using learning material we developed titled "What if someone you love dies?" At the end of the lesson, the number of students who were conscious of the possibility of a family member dying increased from 7 to 12. When they gave feedback on the program, seven students chose the material "What if someone you love dies?" as the most thought-provoking. We believe that this material, which was employed to promote grief education, helped students empathize with the sense of loss and regrets that their classmates had suffered when someone special in their lives had died.
At the beginning of the 20th century in America when the rapid increase in the number of immigrants from South and East Europe was one of the causes of social problems, T. D. Wood named his physical education theory "a naturalized program" in "The New Physical Education" published with R. S. Cassidy in 1927. When analyzing his ideas on physical education in terms of the original meaning of "naturalized" (which is to give citizenship to newcomers, or to Americanize them), it was found that T. D. Wood expected not only to publicize the educational values of sporting activities and the development of recreational habits but also expected the new immigrants to learn the sporting culture of the old immigrants with joy and reason so that they could apply themselves to the American way of life and norms of conduct.
Although there has been research on adults' absolute pitch, little research has been carried out that focuses on children's absolute pitch, especially that of school children. In this study, school children from the 3rd grade to the 6th grade were asked to identify natural tones from C_4 to B_4. The following results were obtained: (1) C was most precisely identified, followed by D and B; (2) Children who had music lessons identified tones more precisely than children who did not have music lessons; (3) Most errors involved confusing correct tones with their neighboring tones. This trend was more prominent in the case of children who did not have music lessons; (4) No response bias was observed; And (5), even children who did not have music lessons identified C at a rate of 80% or above, and they could identify F, which was the most difficult tone, at a rate of 40% or above. Based on these findings, the problem of "fixed do system" and "movable do system" was also discussed.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between "recognition of life" and "action in life" by adolescents by using a rating scale method. This method was carried out by surveying second grade senior high school students and university students: 575 survey respondents were senior high school students and 498 were university students. The students were surveyed under the following headings: (1) "Action in life" by adolescents; (2) "Recognition of life" by adolescents; (3) the relationship between the two. The results were as follows: "Action in life" by adolescents: 1 "Action in life" was analyzed using factor analysis. This revealed four factors including: a) green consumer style; b) active communication with family; c) housework skills; and d) social network. 2 There was a significant difference in opinions on "action in life" between senior high school students and university students. The scores on a questionnaire on "action in life" were higher for university students than for senior high school students. There was also a significant difference between males and females on this same issue. The results showed that females got higher scores than males on the questionnaire. "Recognition of life" by adolescents: 3 The last stage of the continuum of the "recognition of life" was future-oriented "recognition of life". "Recognition of life" was affected by social evaluation and human relationships. The scores for future-oriented "recognition of life", social evaluation and human relationships for the university students were higher than those for the senior high school students and the scores of females were higher than those of males. The relationship between "recognition of life" and "action in life" by adolescents: 4 Good quality of "recognition of life" lead adolescents to a green consumer style, active communication with their family, social evaluation and human relationships.
A method of guidance for a science lesson involving a series of observations of atmospheric and pond water temperatures was applied to two fifth-grade classes at a public elementary school. The purpose of our guidance experiment was to determine the effect of the students' freedom to make decisions in a learning situation. One group (control) was given no discretion on experimental design. The second group (experimental) was given some discretion to decide on equipment, as well as being allowed to discuss expectations of results. Both groups used a Stevenson screen to measure the atmospheric temperature for two weeks. To measure the pond water temperature, the control group was provided with a digital thermometer to use for the duration of the experiment. While the experimental group was provided with an alcohol thermometer in the first week, after some discussion, they decided to use a digital thermometer in the second week. Through a questionnaire we were able to determine the pupils' level of motivation in carrying out the observations, their satisfaction with learning, and their depth of understanding of the principles and the results of the experiment. The questionnaire results suggest that the method of guidance centering on both asking pupils about their expectations, which were different from the actual observed results, and making their own decisions, is effective in motivating pupils to make observations continuously using their own initiative.