The purpose of this study is to examine the learning situation of students when they participate in activities such as considering the results of observations and experiments. In addition, we also aimed to derive implications for teaching methods based on our findings. In order to achieve these goals, we created a questionnaire with 15 items and surveyed a total of 1,325 junior high school students of all grades. The following three points were clarified by the results: (1) Students don't derive their own thoughts/considerations sufficiently in comparison to the activity of creating hypotheses. (2) The activity of students looking at the considerations summarized by the teacher and then stating their view is often carried out rather than students creating their own hypotheses and deriving their own considerations. (3) Although it's difficult to make a connection with the active task of students deriving their own considerations by merely having them look at the summary compiled by the teacher and then state their view, by learning how to create a hypothesis and derive their own considerations using the teacher's summary as a guide, students do actually become able to derive their own considerations. These results suggest that a teaching method where teachers show students how to derive their own considerations and how to create the necessary hypotheses for doing so, rather than merely displaying a model-like discussion from the beginning, is essential.
The purpose of this study is to reveal which developmental aspects in children lead them to become good speakers and listeners through quantitative and qualitative analysis. Results of this study revealed the following two points: By comparing the teachers' and children's rating and evaluation results, it was found the number of children in each category diminished in the following order: "poor speaker but good listener", "good speaker and good listener", "poor speaker and poor listener". It was also found from the results of children's mutual evaluation on manner of speaking that there is a tendency towards decrease in evaluative perspective and increase in unrelated descriptions to the speaking content in the following order: "good speaker and good listener", "poor speaker and good listener", "poor speaker and poor listener". From the above, the following two points may be inferred: 1) To be a good listener is a requirement for becoming a good speaker. 2) It is important to introduce the learning objectives to children in advance and engage them in learning to be aware of the learning objectives in order for them to learn how to speak and to listen for speech contents.
The purpose of this study is to illustrate how junior high school Home Economics and Integrated Studies classes can be incorporated into a comprehensive disaster education program, examine the content of these classes, assess their effectiveness in raising disaster awareness, and improve the students' ability to take appropriate action spontaneously. As urban planning and disaster prevention measures are limited in their ability to protect lives and livelihoods, it is important to maintain social ties and sustain hope regardless of the size of the disaster. In light of the recent unprecedented disaster, the surveyed junior high school students valued the disaster preparedness knowledge gained from Integrated Studies field trips and visiting lecturers, and Home Economics classes dealing with the environment at home and clothing.
The current study focuses on a new role of oral reading as preparatory practice for speaking, and aims to investigate the relationship between speaking ability and oral reading ability. This study examined a speaking process and an oral reading process carefully. In the speaking process, the lexical and grammatical encoding plays an important role. This study found that it is possible that some similar elements found in the speaking process can be also involved in the oral reading process if we make good use of oral reading. For example, the lexical and grammatical verification is involved in the oral reading process such as "read and look up", and the lexical and grammatical restructuring is involved in the oral reading process such as "personalized oral reading". These oral reading activities raise learners' cognitive load and the process of verification or restructuring is close to the cognitive process which happens in the speaking process. Therefore, the present study leads to the hypothesis that oral reading which raises learners' cognitive load will correlate more with the speaking ability than simple oral reading. The result from our experiment confirmed this hypothesis.
The next Course of Study for Senior High School Foreign Languages (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science & Technology = MEXT, 2010) has much attracted attention for the following statement: "...classes, in principle, should be conducted in English in order to enhance the opportunities for students to be exposed to English, transforming classes into real communication scenes" (MEXT, 2011). Does this mean we should introduce Task-based Language Teaching (TBLT), which is a mainstream TESOL (Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages) method, into English language teaching of secondary education in Japan? Can this innovation be made with the PPP (presentation, practice, production) approach? What is required for "transforming classes into real communication scenes" (MEXT, 2011)? In order to answer these questions, this paper compares the new guidelines with TBLT, the PPP approach and the Cognitive PPP approach (the revised PPP approach), revealing that the Cognitive PPP approach matches the new guidelines best. It also gives suggestions for "transforming classes into real communication scenes."
This paper looks at elementary Japanese language textbooks from a gender perspective for nurturing reading literacy as empowerment as related to key competencies. The results show that as the main characters used in stories for teaching are skewed towards the male perspective, the fixed male/female roles and ideas about femininity and sexual division of labor issues found in the elementary Japanese language textbooks will be an opportunity to use reading literacy as the ground for empowerment. I propose more books with the theme of 'reading literacy as empowerment' are necessary for reading syllabus in Japanese classes. Concrete ideas for classes from the perspective of gender within the 'reading literacy as empowerment' paradigm were also suggested from the findings.
This paper attempts to clarify the public funding is allocated to technology subjects, and which institutions at the municipal junior high schools are under the jurisdiction of the local education authorities in Tokyo. Those local education authorities allocating funds to municipal junior high schools, was based on MEXT's findings, obtained higher than average funding for teaching materials. The main findings of this research were: 1. The education authority in "S" ward drew up school budget on regular operating expenses for financially supporting of the schools since 1990. It referred to the Tokyo Metropolitan Office's regular justify their operating expenses for their schools. 2. It was found the budget for technology subjects was more than 460 yen per student. The private expenditure in all departments was audited by the person in charge of school budget, in order to lower the cost within the technology department. However, school budgets for technology departments depended on this private expenditure. 3. The author surmised that, as mentioned above, students must carry the burden of costs of teaching material in the technology subject meaning private expenses must be increased for costs to be met.
In this study, we will make clear a method of developing the teaching plan of social studies of junior high school for building public sphere, by proposing the theory of social studies education based on Constructionism. A public sphere is a space where citizens can discuss about the public issues, such as the order of everyday life, social rule, geographic space, and historical memory. In the world today, where the values of people have diversified, it is difficult for students to build public spheres, while teaching them social studies on the premise of the image of a homogeneous Japanese population. Therefore, we propose a method of designing plans which teach students the realities of geography, history and society are constructed socially, by using social problems concerning our conception of space, memory and rules. With this method, we can help students examine the way geographical space, historical memory and social rules construct their understanding, so that they can build public spheres.