The author gave instructions regarding elementary school English teaching to university students who aspired to become elementary school teachers. At the end of the course, they performed a practice class to review and confirm their learning. In this study, the author verified the relationship between the students' self-evaluation and self-reflection regarding an elementary school practice class. The result showed a moderate correlation between the variables: those students who evaluate their trial teaching highly tend to reflect deeply on their performances. Such students analyzed their strengths and weaknesses well and discovered the solution to problems they encountered in the class. In addition, they were motivated to perform well in their next opportunity. In contrast, those students who consider their practice class poor could not describe the shortcomings in their teaching in detail. For progress in teaching, students who evaluated their practice class poorly should first develop their metacognition and self-evaluation ability. They should then reflect on their performance thoroughly and improve on their weak points. In addition, university teachers need to be conscious of their roles in pre-service teacher education and train students with passion and responsibility.
This study will attempt to discover whether two different types of courses can be appropriately integrated. Science education has been used as an example in discussing the several principles that bridge the learning contents of two types of courses; the general pedagogical courses and the subject content specialized courses. The study will further discuss practical strategies for fostering the ability to think, make decisions, express themselves (ideas from students) which are increasingly becoming important issues in initial teacher training programs.
A teacher with 'practical leadership skills' is important in school education today. Central to this skill is the school curriculum's lesson. However, the present teacher-training programs neglectfully disregard this when it should be guaranteed as part of university program system. In order to establish this, a foundation of this problem needs to be established from this area of investigation, which develops a bridge between education subject and the subject of specialty, and uses education practice as its core. In 2006, the Okayama University Department of Education identified and reformed its core curriculum, which uses the concept 'Action Research' as a solution to this problem. From junior high school subject area was a request for the reorganization of the following: Subject I (content theory) ? Subject II (introduction) ? Subject III (development of content) ? Subject IV (specialties) as contents for its subject matter. In this report, the Home Economics Education Course used problem solving to examine 'the decrease in student's scholastic abilities' and 'Home Economics course teacher employment test'. These two areas produced the foundation of the core curriculum. As a result, the home economics curriculum was constructed and implemented in teacher training. The fundamental problems were analyzed from the above mentioned above viewpoint. The creation of the teacher training Home Economics curriculum raises the practical leadership skills of the subjects which fulfilled the purpose of their education. The consideration of the contents study of the subjects as a connecting domain was achieved. In the Home Economics Education Course, a solution of two problems mentioned above was worked on the following order: 1) investigation of the cause of the problem; 2) conversion of the view of a 'teacher training curriculum' and 'teacher training'; 3) 'teacher image that wants to be promoted' and 'difference between subject specialty and subject content study'; 5) 'the epistemological definition of a subject, and the systematic structure of contents study'; 6) structure of the teacher training Home Economics curriculum, which aims at integrating the subject education, the contents of subject, and practical teaching; and 7) construction of Home Economics "Contents theory" and "Contents development". Consequently, the "subject content study" as an "area of investigation which creates bridges" was constructed.
To nurture the professionalism of school teachers at all level has become an urgent issue education since the introduction of the new School Education Law, which amended in 2007, says that the mission of school education is to foster presentation, thinking and decision-making skills. The aims of school curriculum, therefore, should shift from academic-oriented achievement to meritocratic-oriented attainment. The conclusion is that it is crucial to improve teacher-training system not only at the undergraduate level but also at the postgraduate level. Furthermore, it is important to coordinate the systems between the two levels. In this paper, we address, first, this issue with discussion on the feasibility of development of teaching resources and the feasibility of practice lessons for teacher training at the undergraduate level. We, then, will propose a concrete curriculum for teacher education at the postgraduate level with reference to the Faculty of Education and Graduate School of Education in Hiroshima University as a model of pre-service as a case in point. We will discuss the contents and methods of Senior Seminars for Prospective Teachers, which are related to teacher education lectures at the undergraduate level and connected to those at the postgraduate level. These lectures will begin at all universities and colleges for teacher education from 2013.
Assessment is considered as a 'trojan horse' into the wider issues of pedagogy, psychology, and curriculum. The 'learning to learn (L2L)' movement focuses its attention on curriculum and the link between assessment and teaching in an environment of globalization. The authors try to examine the relationship between curriculum and assessment in teacher education programs in teacher training colleges. The results are as follows: 1) the school-based curriculum development (SBCD) movement since 1970's is today reshaping education by re-conceptualizing the school-wide formative assessment from the bottom, which relates to tacit knowledge; 2) such a proposal is progressing as school-based projects in the UK. The Japanese education system exhibits some of the key characteristics of Formative Assessment, even without any special attention to Formative Assessment, as regular classroom practice in school-based contexts. Therefore, there is a need to align curriculum elements such as pedagogy with the empowerment of teachers in a relevant manner to the school-based context. The authors argue the need to incorporate assessment literacy in teacher education programs in teacher training colleges. To design a core curriculum for teacher education programs in teacher training colleges, assessment literacy is a crucial component in the direction for which curricula will take. Teacher education programs may require more than the traditional four-years to complete for higher standards.
This study aims at clarifying how students' recognitions of geometric figures in the elementary school can be connected to deductive geometry, and in this paper as a part of the study we will try to reveal the structures of geometric dynamic views that we have already identified in the learning of geometric shapes using the operative sheets and that may be considered to be premises for understanding the logical and relational natures of geometry. We transcribed the aspects of the geometric dynamic views as combinations of simple sentences, characterized each sentence using metaphor, metonymy, or synecdoche, and analyzed them in terms of the compositeness of the figurative recognitions. In our analysis, we found that the dynamic views were consolidated into five views: 1) Producing the different figure based on perceptual analogy, 2) Conceiving the movement of whole figure by the constitutive point, 3) Recognizing the invariants, 4) Reversible views, and 5) Simultaneous identification of invariants and variables. These may suggest the hierarchical nature among the dynamic views when we examine the degrees of compositeness for each dynamic view, which will be investigated in more detail in our future research.
The present study investigates how native Chinese speakers learning Japanese only for four months in China (n=101) acquire te-form in four categories and five inflection types of 54 different verbs (Cronbach's reliability, α=.86). The results of the te form test indicate that already-learned verbs were better performed in te inflections than pseudo-verbs. Yet, both of these categories exhibited over 88.00% accuracy: -nde form was the most difficult and -ite/itte was the second most difficult te inflection to produce correctly. The study concluded that native Chinese speakers learning Japanese, even for a short period of four months, adequately apply their knowledge of te inflection rules to various verbs, with some assistance of lexical memory.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effective practice form for development of students' practical skills for daily life in technology education. A total of 761 students in 7 junior high schools (3rd grade) participated in the survey using "Scale of Practical Skills for Daily Life" (Uenosono & Moriyama 2010) and "Scale of Technological Problem Solving Experiences" (Moriyama et.al 2002). Also, interviews were conducted about the practice form to the teachers of the schools. From these results the seven schools could be classified into four distinct groups along two axes: an "Individual/Common project" axis and a "Product/Process oriented practice" axis. The average scores of "Scale of Practical Skills for Daily Life" were then compared in these four groups. Further results show, "Individual project" and "Process oriented practice" types had the highest scores, and was considered the most effective form for development of practical skills for daily life in technology education.
This study investigates the influence of the performance climate in physical education classes on students' ego orientation, and that of the ego orientation on competitiveness. The participants were 1,263 junior high school students (612 boys and 651 girls). The measures were a questionnaire on the motivational climate in physical education, a goal-orientation scale, and a multidimensional competitiveness scale. A multi-population simultaneous analysis demonstrated the validity of the causal model on both boys and girls. The analysis showed that in both groups, the performance climate in physical education classes positively influenced students' ego orientation, which in turn positively influenced perseverance and instrumental competitiveness. In addition, the performance climate directly affected avoidance of competitiveness. These results suggest that the performance climate of physical education classes makes students recognize competition as a means to develop their abilities as well to determine the winner, but that they simultaneously feel threatened by such competitiveness.
This study examines the actual dietary habits of university students, and identified a connection between those dietary habits and the student's family background or home economics education experience. The studied group consisted of 565 university students. The results suggest that dietary behavior students engaged in most frequently was to keep cooking utensils clean and proper food storage and preservation. However they less frequently engaged in preparing their own meals three times a day or eat nutritionally balanced meals. Furthermore, the analysis revealed that the dietary habits of university students were connected with their interest in home economics education, their knowledge of home economics, both basic and practical, and their family background. Student habits were affected more strongly by their family background than by educational input. In addition student interest in and awareness of home economics had a direct influence on those students' dietary habits. However, their basic and practical knowledge of home economics had an indirect influence on their dietary habits.