There are four skills in language learning: listening and speaking, reading, and writing. Of these four the one which is likely to be the most useful for students of a foreign language as a school subject is reading. The items below, in the normal English teaching procedure in junior high school, will be discussed in this paper. ・Which should be firstly introduced, 'reading aloud' or 'silent reading'? ・How to check students' reading comprehension , ・A paragraph reading, ・An analytical treatment of more complicated sentence constructions, ・The importance of reading aloud,
For prospective teachers to create a table of the plan of teaching mathematics in the class room, we have tried the microteaching. We have administered the tests and the retests by using the instruments of Evyatar's items of Goals of the Teaching of Mathematics (GTM) and McCallon-Brown's semantic differential scales (SD). The main findings as follows: (1) Items 'Commit the child to the value of rational analysis', 'Give the knowledge of some basic mathematical facts' and 'Teach the importance of educated intuition' are in the higher order class in male, female and total students through the test and the retest. (2) Item 'Instil the belief that mathematics is discoverable' was in the hygher class in the test and has dropped down in the retest. Item 'Help acquire a suitable set of mental symbols' has gone up in the retest. (3) In the SD scales, 'Bad-Good', 'Hard-Soft' and 'Afraid-Unafraid' scales change toward the more favorable side in the retest by using the concept "a table of the plan of teaching mathematics".
We used tow AO cards in the present research to teach complex number for senior high school students. One of AO cards is denoted Venn Diagram (AO_1 group) and the other Number Line (AO_2 group). We examined the effect of these two AO cards by transfer test and found no significant differences. Moreover, we investigated the change of SD scores of pretest and posttest in two groups. Our findings as follows: Scales Hard-Soft, Afraid- Unafraid and Love-Hate change lower in AO_1 group and Scale Valable-Worthless in AO_2 group.
This report is a fundamental study how we construct an efficient field of the science-study, and what or how we construct for a child learning on their own. By the last report, learning from experiences in the science-study was kept by some images in a child. This time, I investigated particularly relation between sharpness of the image kept in a child and a response against a stimulation. Consequently, I found out as follows: 1. A child keeps a state of learning intact by a image answers correctly against a question with film confidence. 2. A child that keeps a vague image answers at random with wavering confidence. 3. A child that keeps a mistaken images makes a mistake at a question.
It is one of subjects in science education that a teacher should enlighten children's subjectivity, independency, and creativity in their recognizing natural phenomena. The purpose of this study is to construct the structure of them. In order to solve the problem, three relations were analyzed. They are: 1) the relations between natural phenomena and their foundational concepts, 2) the relations between the processes for understanding earth science and natural phenomena, 3) the relations between foundational concepts in earth science and structure of them. According to the results of analyzing the three relations, foundational concepts in earth science are catalogued into four as follows. They are: history, equilibrium, time & space, and energy.
In terms of the scholastic ability in music education, there are two moments. One of these is to systematize educational content in view of the structures of music. The other is to clarify the learning process of the content. And it is necessary to integrate these two moments. Putting a focus on the latter, we have tried to plan the teaching program. We moreover have studied the process of development of musical cognition by analyzing of learning in lower grades of elementary school. This time we tried to explain in particular the learning processes of rhythm and melody.
In this paper, it is discussed about the following points: (1) A methodological basis means not a concrete method but an abstract method. It constitutes a premise in the concrete method, and it has a 'reflection form' and a 'pre- existence reflection form' in the abstract method. (2) An attitude to the objects of the studies in art education and the cognition of them involve general dualism of "nature and culture". In 'reflection form', in particular, the dualism appears in both 'Life Line' and 'Creation Line' in common. On the other hand, the difference between the two 'Lines' exists in the direction toward "nature and culture". (3) We show the structure and character in "something natural" and "something cultural", and we locate them in "something educational in art". By doing so, the dichotomy of "nature and culture" will be shown explicity. And, at the same time, the two domains mentioned above are not oppositional, but they should be observed objectively to get the precise understanding of the objects.
In this paper, l introduce two books of Art Education Research. One of them is "Becoming Human Through Art" by Edmund Burke Feldman, Professor of University of Georgia, and the other one is "Alternatives for Art Education Research" by Kenneth R. Beittel, Professor of The Pennsylvania state University. In Japan, we have a little chance to get translated into Japanese book of Art Education Research. We have had good researches of teaching methods and the way of "let a child makes picture" but in the field of Art Educational theory, we do little. Dr. Beittel told by philosophical back ground and Dr. Feldman told by mardan sence of teaching theory. They must give us very good suggestions for our Art Educational theory and advanced research of Art Education.