The study was undertaken to construct the methodology for analyzing the curriculum design and to make clear the principles and strategies of curriculum development. Aims, goals and objectives, content, learning activities, and evaluation are discussed as the basic curriculum components. As the curriculum foundations, epistemology, the individual, culture/society/nature, and learning theory are considered for curriculum design. From these points, the viewpoints for analyzing the curriculum design are organized as follows: (1) Philosophical assumptions - (a) Philosophical position, (b) Needs of the subject matter, (c) Curriculum structure, and (d) Assumptions of learning theory (2) Aims, goals and objectives. (3) Structure of the content and learning activities - (a) Scope, (b) Sequence, and (c) Bases for cumulation. (4) Strategies from curriculum to instruction. (5) Logistics of instruction. (6) Evaluation. (7) Consistency of curriculum design.
This is one of a series of studies on the applications of Piaget's psychology to mathematical education. Theoretical analyses were intended about the formation of didactics based on Piaget's psychology, and it's development; comments on mathematical education by Piaget, claims for pre-curriculum by B. Inhelder, 'Operational principles' by H. Aebli and A. Fricke, and it's clarification and extension by E. Wittmann and H. G. Steiner. It was comprehended that the new active teaching principles are to base on the concept of grouping, and the 'Basics' of mathematical education are thus to clarify the elementary groupings of school mathematics and their teaching strategies.
Considering that a teaching theory of subject instruction should be dealt with as a theory of building up, we must make clear its theoretical basis which confirms a possibility of building up, aims of instruction, necessary conditions of lesson and the process of teaching. The purpose of this article is to approach these problems, referring to Annette Kuhn's theory of "Critical historical instruction (Kritische Geschichtsunterricht)". She has been greatly inspired by the social theory of the Frankfurt School of philosophy ("Kritische Theorie") of which the key concept is "Emanzipation" that enables the process of children's understanding to function as a process of building up for them. She considers the theory to be a foundation and also a condition of teaching. Following the key concept, she constructs her theory on the process of critical historical instruction. We can learn from her idea that it is necessary in the theory of building up to establish a theory of instruction such as Kritische Theory which links the social theory with the theory of science.
As in science it is an iron rule to make a trial, in every other field it is indispensable for learners to appreciate. Appreciation is not limited only to the field of art education or language education. In Mathematics education, too, the word 'appreciation' is often mentioned. However, there are very few materials which deal with appreciation in regard to mathematics education. This paper is a study of appreciation in mathematics education, from the view point of curriculum research and development.
For the organization of the best suited teaching-learning activities, it is necessary to make clear the conditions of children learning behaviors. This is the basic research study to make clear the learning conditions by analysis of psyco-physiological activities. The study was undertaken to measure EEG in undergraduate students, in place of children, on the problem-solving about "The combustion of a candle". The students observed nature phenomena on TV, and were asked to interpret the changes of phenomena. The results are summarized as follows; (1) The reduced alpha waves in P_3 - P_4 EEG were seen at quation-answering behaviors more than at observating behaviors. (2) There were some EEG patterns among students on the process of this problem- solving. And there was the relation between EEG patterns and the patterns of learner's answer contents. These results mean that the proportion of intuitive and analytic thinking is being changed by circumstances he is placed in. The behavior of collecting and dealing informations that depends on intuitive thinking rather than analytic thinking, affects to the next internal symbolic behavior that depends on analytic thinking rather than intuitive thinking.
The Objective of this study is to find the logical thinking process in inquiry. Included were such process as hypotheso's formation, if then reasoning, drawing inferences from data and generalization in the following science lesson which is used sodium bicarbonate as the teaching materials. 1. Some gases dissolve in water 2. There are acided, alkaline and neutral water solutions. 3. Some metals are changed by the action of some water solutions.
The main problem of school music education is the arrangement of music instructional contents. From this point of view, the analysis of the advanced music educational method in other countries would provide us with a great deal of information concerning the fundamentals of music education. Through the analysis of "Kodaly's method", one of the eminent music education systems successfully practiced in Hungary, the aim of this study is to clarify the problem of how it's instructional contents are arranged and developed. By the way, instructional contents which are locating between instructional objectives and teaching method, involves the processes concerned with the selection and sequencing of subject matter for accomplishment of the objectives. Therefore, the arrangement of the contents should be firstly discussed concerning with the objectives. This time, we are only presenting the first part of the whole of this study. The contents are the analysis of the instructional objectives, the structure of the instructional contents, and the instructional sequence of the musical elements in Kodaly's method.