With two languages as dissimilar as Japanese and English, perhaps it is to be expected that the speakers of the one will have some problems in practicing the other. Neverless, the frequency and consistency of certain kinds of errors must be a cause for concern. This is so especially if one takes into account the large amount of time and effort that Japanese students put into mastering the English language. This article accordingly, looks at various errors often displayed by Japanese students. Particularly, in their listening comprehension and dictation of English radio and television weather forecasts. In addition, this paper will also speculate on some of the reasons for the problems encountered by Japanese practioners of the other language. Because the Japanese language does not have articles, it is often difficult for Japanese students to listen to both the definite and indefinite articles. When they dictate the weather forecast in English, they often omit articles. This is mainly because the indefinite article "a" is often reduced and appears to be part of the word which comes before it. It is usually pronounced [ə] when it is not stressed. This sound is very difficult for Japanese students to comprehend. They can easily comprehend "a" when there is a special reason of contrast when announcers give the full pronunciation of [ei]. It is also very difficult for Japanese students to distinguish "a" when it is pronounced [ə] before a word beginning with a consonant sound, and "an" when it is pronounced [æn]. Most Japanese students are able to comprehend "the" when it is pronounced [ðe] before words that begin with a consonant sound. But they find it difficult to distinguish "the when it is pronounced [ði] before words with a vowel sound. Functional prepositions such as "to, of, and for" are often reduced when they are used with verbs, nouns, adjectives and adverbs. It is especially difficult to distinguish "to", because, following the pattern of verb + to + second verb, to may be reduced to/tə/or/ ə / and combine with the first verb, which may also change. Another preposition "of" is usually reduced in expressions like "some of, most of, none of, all of, and a lot of before consonants, and is very difficult for the Japanese learners of English to comprehend. Errors are also found among be verbs when they are reduced in normal speech. Many Japanese students cannot comprehend such phrases as "You're, He's, She's, They're, We're, Which're Why're, etc." When the pronouns such as "he, his, him, and her" are unstressed, the sound / h / may be dropped. So, many Japanese students are unable to distinguish the phrases including these pronouns. In many cases, when listening, Japanese students are unable to comprehend such simple words such as air, call, come, first, plus, rain and wind which they can easily understand by sight. This is mainly because they have not been properly trained in listening comprehension of the English language in their junior and senior high school education. In conclusion, for the purpose of communication, it is very important for the Japanese students to be trained in the listening comprehension of the English language. In this respect, English from the Mass Media such as weather forecast and other news items should be effectively used in the English classrooms.
With the students of Faculty of Education, Kumamoto University, as subjects, a statiscal research was carried out on homemaking, which they had learned during their fifth and sixth grade periods. It was inferred that almost all of the male elementary school teachers would feel it difficult to teach homemaking, as was generally considered. The results obtained in the study was considered to be helpful for our future teacher education, especially in teaching male students.
This article is studied on the following points; 1) To pick up representative theories of the learning process (Systematic method, Problem-solving method, Project method and Discovery method) and to find the differences of the cognitive processes. 2) To make clear the special features of these theories in analyzing each case when adopted in practical music education. 3) To study the relation between the purpose and the learning process of music and to have a view of the future music education.
According to Misumi (1978), teacher leadership is divided into two kinds: performance functions and maintenance functions. P and M stand for Performance and Maintenance, respectively. I did research on the change of student attitudes toward teacher leadership. My students (freshmen of Tottori Univ.) have been taught English in a humanistic approach which is also called human dynamics (or real communication) in foreign language and integrates self-reflection, interpersonal skills and cognitive mastery into one whole. The students' attitudes toward teacher leadership showed a statistically significant change in the four items of P-functions and the four items of M-functions. It has been found out that a humanistic approach can contribute to the enhancement of M-functions, which will result in the improvement of P-functions.
Although Drama has long served as supplemental activity for foreign language classes, it was used only as an example of a narrow concept of cultural content-performance. The role of Drama has recently changed to a means of the language instruction reflecting a growing concern for affective component of learning. Drama exercises provide students with different situations in which they can increase their range of self-expression. Drama also provides reasons to communicate in English. This study is intended to discuss drama techniques enriching language programs. The first part (I) of this study focuses on a rationale for drama techniques.
In the last report I put a focus on concept of rhythm. In building the instructional program of rhythm, the rhythmic skill must be called in question. The problem of learning rhythmic skills is closely related to concept of rhythm; the rhythmic learning in school music education is acquiring rhythmic skills in the direction to formate concept of rhythm. In this context, the purpose of this study is to clarify the learning process of rhythmic skills in relation to concept of rhythm.
In the common education, lessons in music should be given with the help of Solfege as an important means of teaching students how to read and write music, developing their abilities of inner hearing and reading of music, finally leading them to the understanding of Musical structure through the ear. Although Solfege should be the very foundation of Musical Education, it has been rather neglected in our country when compared with the musical situation in Hungary where the Kodaly system, for example, has been adopted. On the contrary, Japanese students have had enough of the kind of solfege that compels them to sit uninterested at their desks singing or hearing automatically without inner music. So it is very important to set some deliberate plan of Solfege Education that will inspire the new hopes and interests in classes. Solfege, in the truest sence of the word, should be a high road to music; one of the most effective remedy for sharing enjoyable musical classes. From this point of view, the way how Solfege should be in schools and how it should be carried out will be the main theme of this thesis.