Crystal structure and superconductivity of YBa2Cu3O7-δ thin films were investigated as functions of oxygen contents and growth temperatures. An effective method for the quantita-tive determination of oxygen content from X-ray diffraction intensity ratio was established through systematic studies on the structural change of the oxygen deficient films. Dependence of cation disorder and Tc on growth temperature, as well as post-annealing temperature has also been obtained. The results suggest an intrinsic relation existing between structure and superconductivity.
The photoexcited process for NO chemisorbed on Pt surfaces is presented. Desorption and dissociation induced by nanosecond-pulsed visible and ultraviolet laser irradiation have been investigated using angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy, reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy and a resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization technique. It is found that the photoexcited process shows high reaction selectivity depending on the surface structure and the adsorption site.
Fundamental principles and recent developments in electron crystallography are explained by way of structure analysis of plant light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-protein complex associated with photosystem II (LHC-II) . Atomic model of LHC-II had been determined at 3.4Å resolution by electron cryo-microscopy, which included newly developed hardware (an electron cryo-microscope, a cryo-transfer device) as well as specimen preparation techniques.
A new concept of “the formation of quasi-compounds and their self-ordering on metal surfaces” is reviewed. When Cu (110), Ag (110), Ni (110) are exposed to O2 at room temperature, one dimensional quasi-compounds of metal-oxygen chains are grown on the surfaces in the  direction. The P (n×1) structure of the Ag-O chanins on Ag (110) surface is rationalized by a specific self-ordering of Ag-O quasi-compound on Ag (110) surface. Based on the idea of quasi-compound formation, a new Ag (110) surface on which Cu-O chains are grown in the  was prepared. On the other hand, H2 on Ni (110) surface undergoes the growth of one dimentional Ni-H strings in the  direction at room temperature. Coadsorption of H2 on a p (3×1) Ni-O/Ni (110) surface makes compress the p (3×1) Ni-O to the p (2×1) arrangement. These atom scale phenomena can not be explained by the traditional concept of the adsorption or coadsorption, but can be rationalized by the concept of the quasi-compounds proposed in this review. The concept of the qusi-compounds is inevitable to understand the alloy and/or bimetallic surfaces. For example, prominent catalysis of the Pt-Rh (100) alloy and Pt/Rh (100) and Rh/Pt (100) bimetallic surfaces for the NOx reduction is explained by the formation of a Rh-O pverlayer on a Pt enriched 2nd layer.
It has been proposed to maintain strong ligand binding affinity of antibodies, while reducing the immnogenecity of those to human body. Human reshaped antibody is of that kind and has 6 CDRs from mouse and deviates from the human framework structures as small as possible.