Large single crystal plates of Li1-xVO2 (x≈0.2) have been first grown using the Li2O-B2O3 flux method. Precession photographs reveal that an additional superstructure is formed on the basic ordered rock salt (ORS) structure at room temperature, and is released above transition temperature forming the ideal ORS structure. Small amount of LiV2O4 decomposed partially from the Li1-xVO2 crystals on heating above Tcis also confirmed. Average structure analysis based on the ORS structure reveals that there exists large anisotropy on the thermal ellipsoid of V-site. The results of X-ray diffraction and the EXAFS analysis at room temperature indicate that the superstructure is originated in formation of the V3-trimers, and the displacement of V ions is estimated to be 0.16Å. Three kinds of stacking sequence of V3-trimers are proposed to explain the intensity distributions of superstructure reflections. Temperature dependence of electrical resistivity and magnetic susceptibility are measured. Significant anisotropy in both of them is observed, indicating two-dimensional feature of this compound.
X-ray transmission imaging that creates image contrast from the distribution of the X-ray absorption coefficient is not sensitive to materials consisting of light elements such as hydrogen, carbon, nytrogen, and oxygen. On the other hand, the X-ray phase shift caused by the light elements is substantial enough to be detected even when absorption is almost zero. Hence, phase-contrast X-ray imaging is a promissing technique for observing the structure inside biological soft tissues without the need for staining and without serious radiation exposure. Using fringe scanning X-ray interferometry, the X-ray phase shift caused by an object was measured. Three-dimensional image reconstruction of cancerous tissues using the measured phase shifts was enabled under tomographic configuration phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography (CT) .