Practical techniques of HRTEM observations of crystal structures are described, after a brief reveiw of the basic theory of imaging based on the weak-phase-object approximation (WPOA) . The import points to obtain the crystal structure images of high quality are to (1) select thin crystals, (2) set orientation correctly under the diffraction mode and (3) take images under so-called “Scherzer's focal condition”.
First, constitution of a simulation program for high-resolution electron microscopy is outlined. In order to record high-resolution images accurately, (S/N) and DQE (detective quantum efficiency) characteristics for new recording materials like the imaging plate are presented. It is shown that digital data of high-resolution microscope images appropriately recorded on the imaging plate can quantitatively be analyzed through image simulation with a residual index. Finally, quantitative high-resolution microscopy with a residual index is briefly discussed by comparing with the X-ray and neutron diffraction analysis with the so-called R-factor.
The application of the theory of superspace groups to the modulated structure with a four-dimensional symmetry is reviewed. Some characters of incommensurate diffraction patterns, important relations between the three-dimensional space and four-dimensional superspace, four-dimensional structure factors, four-dimensional symmetry operations are summarized.
Advances in synchrotron radiation sources have opened up a new frontier of inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) spectroscopy. The IXS measurements with a resolution much better than a few eV are now becoming feasible. Such experiments can be used to study various properties of condensed systems: e.g., electron correlations in the ground state (Compton-Raman scattering), eV and sub-eV electronic excitations (X-ray Raman scattering and small-angle IXS), and meV phonon excitations (ultra-high resolution IXS) .