The Maximum Entropy Method (MEM) can provide a high-resolution nuclear density distribution purely from experimental neutron diffraction data. The distribution expresses thermal smearing, which is caused by all kinds of thermal-vibration modes both harmonic and anharmonic. If the effective one-particle potential (OPP) is assumed to describe thermal smearing of nuclei, the potential parameters can be determined by least squares refinement of the nuclear density distribution. It is found that this technique gives sufficiently small correlation between potential parameters than the conventional structure analysis technique and the potential parameters can be precisely determined even in a powder diffraction case.
Type I interferons are proteins with antiviral, antitumour and immunomodulator activities. We solved the crystal structure of recombinant murine interferon-β (reMuIFN-β) using an X-ray crystallographic technique. Here, we describe a structure-function relationship of Type I interferons based on the crystal structure of reMuIFN-β. Furthermore, we discuss the evolution of interferons and helical cytokines.
Electrode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries are reviewed from the viewpoint of crystal structures, phase relationships, and electrode properties. Following a brief description of lithium battery, major electrode materials, LiCoO2, LiNiO2, and LiMn2O4 are discussed. Materials design for the electrodes based on the crystal structures are important for future materials developments.
Aspartic acid in protein isomerizes autocatalytically to isoaspartate via succinimide intermediate in vitro and in vivo. We have determined the crystal structures of Ustilago sphaerogena ribonuclease U2 with an isoaspartate residue and hen egg-white lysozymes with a succinimide intermediate and with an isoaspartate residue at 1.8 Å resolution. These crystal structures reveal that the isomerizations of aspartic acids induce structural changes on proteins, which result in modifying the function and physical properties of the proteins.
It is described about the history of advancement on high power X-ray generators with rotating anode, mainly on the vacuum sealing around rotating axis. An useful high power X-ray generator was invented by CLAY in 1934. His generator had the following data on the performance, power: nearly 5 kW (30 kV-150 mA), working time: 1000 hours for two years. Since then many improvements on high power X-ray generators have been tried by many engineers. The most useful type on today has the following data on the performance, power: 90 kW (60-kV 1500 mA), working time: 3000 hours effectively.