Due to a special shape of Fermi surfaces in Pd and Pt metals, charge and magnetic impurity potentials induce the oscillatory shielding with large amplitude and extending to long distance along the  direction. As a result, Pd-M and Pt-M (M = Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe and Co) alloys show short range order of different types, but with the same symmetry. These are an atomic concentration wave for non-magnetic alloys (M = Ti, V, Cr), a spin-density-wave for spin-glass alloys (M = Cr, Mn) and a transverse spin modulation wave for ferromagnetic alloys (M = Fe, Co) .
The charge ordering process of a mixed valence system LuFe2O4 has been investigated using electron, X-ray, and neutron scattering techniques. We point out the unique features directly observed in the scattering patterns, and elucidate the physical origins of these unique features based on the theoretical treatment concerning cooperative ordering of extra chargefholes on Fe-sites. The results show clearly that the unique features in the scattering experiments are consistently explained only when the inter-charge interaction between the neighboring hexagonal layers is taken to be attractive.
The complex crystal of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and its soluble receptor, the principal ligand-binding region, was obtained by a vapor-diffusion method using ammonium sulfate as a precipitant. The addition of 1, 4-dioxane was effective to grow the crystals to sufficient sizes for X-ray diffraction. The cryoprotection was essential to collect diffraction data at an atomic resolution. The crystal form changed from I-tetragonal to P-tetragonal, depending upon the difference of the salt concentration of the cryoprotectant. The crystal structure revealed that the two sets of a 1 : 1 complex between receptor and G-CSF form a 2 : 2 complex with a non-crystallographic pseudo-two-fold axis. This first structural view of a complex between type 1 cytokine and its receptor presents a new molecular basis for cytokine-receptor recognition.
The crystal structure of RhoA bound an effector domain of protein kinase N has been determined at 2.2 Å resolution. The structure reveals the antiparallel coiled-coil finger (ACC finger) fold of the effector domain that binds to the Rho specificity-determining regions containing switch I, strands B2 and B3, and C-terminal helix A5, predominantly by specific hydrogen bonds. Sequence analysis based on the structure suggests that the ACC finger fold is widespread in Rho effector proteins.
We formulate a theory of the aging phenomena in shape memory alloys. The order parameter of the martensitic transformation is coupled with a secondary variable which follows the evolution of the order parameter but is assumed to be an extremely slow variable. From this set of equations, the stress-strain relation due to the motion of twin boundaries is obtained by taking account of the aging effect. The results are found to be consistent, at least qualitatively, with experiments.
We have developed new types of neutron spin echo interferometer based on a coherent superposition of the two eigen states of ↑ and ↓ neutron spins in a magnetic field, similar to a neutron spin echo spectrometer. By means of the neutron interferometer, we have observed spin precession of neutron through a magnetic layer in tunneling region, a magnetic Fabry-Perot film in a bound state of ↑ spin neutron, a magnetic multilayer at Bragg condition and a helical single crystal of holmium at magnetic Bragg condition. The observed spin precessions are well reproduced by the phase differences of ↑ and ↓ spin wave-functions of neutron solved by Schrödinger equation based on the one dimensional rectangular magnetic potentials.