Structural and physical properties of bulk and thin film samples in ZnO-In2O3 system are shown. Several homologous compounds ZnkIn2Ok+3 where k ≥ 3 for bulk system and where k ≥2 for thin film system were observed. Trends in electrical and optical properties, as functions of k in ZnkIn2Ok+3, were identified. The potential for metastable ZnIn2O4 (k = 1) was discussed. The existence of k = 1 and 2 crystalline members at [In] / ( [In] + [Ga] ) = 0.5, but not at [In] / ( [In] + [Ga] ) =1, together with the change in sign of the slope of the lattice constants at [In] / ( [In] + [Ga] ) = 0.5 suggests that ZnkInGaOk+3 would be the constitutive compounds, as opposed to the end members ZnkIn2Ok+3 and ZnkGa2Ok+3.
The modern solid chocolate is consisted of a continuous fat phase (cocoa butter) thickly dispersed with fine particles such as cocoa mass, sugar and milk powder. In crystallization of cocoa butter, the stable and fine Form V is most desirable because the most stable Form VI grows to the coarser crystal which will develop fat bloom. A new seeding of BOB β2 crystal powder preferably induces Form V crystallization, and furthermore inhibits fat bloom formation even after 38 °C due to its higher melting point.
We report here the principle of “how to directly observe the orbital ordering by using the polarized neutron diffraction technique” . As typical examples, the orbital ordering of YTiO3 and Lu2V2O7 were reviewed. We emphasize here that this is a powerful method to detect the orbital ordered state.
An atomic stereo-microscope that enables viewing three-dimensional atomic arrangements was developed. The azimuthal shifts of forward-focusing peaks in photoelectron diffraction pattern obtained by left and right helicity light enable a stereoscopic image when the two images are respectively viewed by the left eye and the right eye simultaneously. Taking advantage of this phenomenon, a display-type spherical-mirror analyzer can obtain stereoscopic photographs directly on the screen without any computer-aided conversion process.