After the single structures of ferredoxin and ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase have been reported, no complex structure of them was reported. Here we report the crystallization of the electron transfer complex between ferredoxin and ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase from maize leaf and the structure analysis of this complex at 2.59 Å resolution. The structures of ferredoxin and ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase in this complex state differ from the structures of single states. The complex formation not only determines optimal orientation of the two proteins, but also contributes to modulation of the enzymatic properties.
Recent progress of the study on condensed matter using nuclear resonant scattering of synchrotron radiation is reviewed. One of the most outstanding features of this method is the possibility to obtain the electronic and vibrational characters of the local environment of the resonant nucleus. The theoretical and experimental aspects and some of the experimental results are discussed.
The Au-Cd alloys near equi-atomic composition are quite fascinating ones, in which the shape memory effect, and rubber-like behavior were first found, and the phenomenological crystallographic theory was successfully applied at the beginning. However, the B2-ξ2' (trigonal) martensitic transformation in the alloys has been least understood until recently. Besides, the alloys are prototype of all martensitic alloys, in which all unique phenomena appear in an ideal manner. The present paper reviews recent developments on the alloys with the authors' experiences, which cover crystal structure of ξ2' martensite, crystallography of the martensitic transformation, precursor phenomena and the mechanism of the rubber-like behavior etc.