The development of functional metalladithiolene complexes was described. Photo-, magneto-, and electro-functional moieties were hybridized with a metalladithiolene backbone to produce novel electronic properties, such as photo-controlled three-state switching, and a SOMO-HOMO converted electronic structure. Long range electronic communication and three-dimensional clusterization were achieved on triangular trinuclear metalladithiolene complexes. The atomiclayer nickel dithiolene nanosheet was successfully prepared, in which nickel bis（dithiolene）moieties were connected through benzene skeletons to form a fully π-conjugated hexagonal structure in two dimensions. The electric properties of the stacked nanosheets were modulated by chemical redox reaction.
Magnetostructural correlations in antiperovskite manganese nitrides Mn3AN（A ：metal or semiconducting element）are briefly reviewed based on the recent experiments on thermal expansion, crystal structure, and magnetization. This class of nitrides is attracting great attention because of the giant negative thermal expansion, which is achieved by doping Ge or Sn into the A site as relaxant of the sharp volume change due to magnetovolume effects. Physical background of the large volume change（spontaneous volume magnetostriction ωs）and the mechanism of its broadening are central concerns for physics and application of these nitrides. Intimate relation between large ωs and the cubic triangular antiferromagnetic structure is discussed in terms of magnetic stress concept and geometrical frustration related to the Mn6N octahedron. Local structure anomaly suggested by recent microscopic probes is also referred as a possible driving force of the broadening of volume change.
γ-Glutamyltranspeptidase（GGT） is a heterodimic enzyme that undergoes post-translational processing and catalyzes the hydrolysis of γ-glutamyl bond in such compounds as glutathione and/or the transfer of the γ-glutamyl group to other amino acids and peptides. We have determined the several crystal structures of GGT orthologs and their complex structures with the substrate/product and inhibitors as well as GGT precursor. These structures demonstrate the mechanism of the maturation, catalytic reaction and substrate recognition of GGT.
Long-period structures of homologous phases Ga2O3（ZnO）m are closely related to the wurtzite structure of ZnO, and structural evolution is discussed based on the results from structure analyses. A unified structure model for Ga2O3（ZnO）m is established in（3+1）dimensional superspace. Zig-zag functions with large amplitudes are used as modulation functions in the model, which is a common feature in structures constructed by the so-called unit-cell twining. Advantages of the superspace description for homologous phases are explained in relation to the process of identification of materials.
Unlike conventional crystallography techniques, diffractive imaging becomes possible to analyze the specimen structure of non-crystalline materials. Combined low-energy electron beam with diffractive imaging, low-damage imaging technique has been developed for the analysis of light element material that is susceptible to damage due to beam. Here, it is described with respect to results of verification of low-energy electron diffractive imaging and atomic resolution imaging with carbon nanotubes as specimens. Furthermore, features of electron diffractive imaging in comparison with X-ray and our approach and efforts to date are described in this article.
We have constructed structural models of CaO-Al2O3 glasses using combined density functional theory-reverse Monte Carlo simulations and obtained structures that reproduce experimental data（X-ray and neutron diffraction, EXAFS）. The O-Ca and O-Al coordination numbers are similar in the eutectic 64 mol％ CaO（64CaO）glass［comparable to 12CaO･7Al2O3（C12A7）］, and the glass structure comprises a topologically disordered cage network with large-sized rings. Analysis of the electronic structure reveals that the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals occur in cavity sites, suggesting that the C12A7 electride glass can host solvated electrons. Calculations of 64CaO glass structures with few subtracted oxygen atoms confirm this observation.
In this review, we report the basics and application of annular bright-field（ABF）imaging in scanning transmission electron microscopy（STEM）, which enables the direct imaging of light element atomic columns in crystals. In addition, we explain a recent technique for further enhancing the image contrast of light element columns, extending the idea of ABF STEM.