日本結晶学会誌
Online ISSN : 1884-5576
Print ISSN : 0369-4585
ISSN-L : 0369-4585
56 巻 , 3 号
選択された号の論文の17件中1~17を表示しています
特集
3.鉱物学と結晶学
  • 杉山 和正, 中塚 晃彦
    2014 年 56 巻 3 号 p. 149
    発行日: 2014/06/30
    公開日: 2014/07/09
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 中塚 晃彦
    2014 年 56 巻 3 号 p. 150-157
    発行日: 2014/06/30
    公開日: 2014/07/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    Application of the Debye model to the temperature dependence of atomic mean square displacements determined by X-ray diffraction provides individual knowledge of dynamic and static natures of atomic displacements, together with characteristic values of crystals such as Debye temperature and one particle potential coefficients. The anharmonic refinement, incorporating the higher-order terms into the Debye-Waller factor, is a useful technique to detect the deformation of the probability density functions from ellipsoidal distribution due to anharmonic thermal vibrations and static disorders of atoms. Here we review our recent research that applied these approaches to Mg3Al2Si3O12 garnet, an important constituent in the Earth's interior. The research has proved the presence of the Mg static disorder, which has long been a controversial issue, and has proposed the possibility of anharmonic thermal vibrations of atoms at high temperature.
  • 奥部 真樹, 佐々木 聡
    2014 年 56 巻 3 号 p. 158-165
    発行日: 2014/06/30
    公開日: 2014/07/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    Resonant X-ray scattering techniques were applied for crystal-structure analyses for determining the valence state, charge ordering and magnetic structures in various minerals and inorganic compounds. The article includes the topics on absorption edge, Kramers-Kronig relation, anomalous scattering factors, two-wavelengths anomalous dispersion method, valence-difference contrast method, resonant scattering in electronic transition and resonant X-ray magnetic scattering.
  • 八木 健彦
    2014 年 56 巻 3 号 p. 166-172
    発行日: 2014/06/30
    公開日: 2014/07/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    History of the study of the Earth's deep interior was reviewed. In order to understand Earth's deep interior from the view point of materials science, X-ray diffraction under high pressure and high temperature played very important role. Use of synchrotron radiation dramatically advanced this experimental technique and it is now possible to make precise X-ray study under the P-T conditions corresponding even to the center of the Earth. In order to clarify the behavior of light elements such as hydrogen, however, studies using neutron diffraction are also required. A new neutron beam line dedicated for high-pressure science is constructed at J-PARC and is now ready for use.
  • 門馬 綱一
    2014 年 56 巻 3 号 p. 173-178
    発行日: 2014/06/30
    公開日: 2014/07/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    Features of the three-dimensional (3D) visualization software VESTA and a program for maximum entropy method (MEM) analysis Dysnomia are reviewed. VESTA has a unique feature to simultaneously visualize crystal, volumetric and morphology data. Multiple numbers of crystal structure data can be overlaid and compared in the same 3D space. Two examples of how these features are utilized in the X-ray crystallographic study are presented. In Dysnomia, several new features are implemented for improvement of the results of MEM analysis and better performance of calculation. New features in the latest version of VESTA are also explained, and some thoughts on the future of crystallographic visualization software are discussed.
連載企画 産業界で活躍する結晶学
  • 草野 圭弘, 福原 実
    2014 年 56 巻 3 号 p. 179-185
    発行日: 2014/06/30
    公開日: 2014/07/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    Bizen stoneware, with the characteristic reddish hidasuki or “fire-marked” pattern, is one of Japan's best known traditional ceramic works of art. We investigated the microstructure and color-formation process in Bizen stoneware, and discovered that the hidasuki pattern resulted from the precipitation of corundum (α-Al2O3) and the subsequent epitaxial growth of hematite (α-Fe2O3) around it in a ~50 µm-thick liquid specifically formed in the ceramic surface. The epitaxial composites include hexagonal plate-like α-Fe2O3/α-Al2O3/α-Fe2O3 sandwiched particles. At low oxygen partial pressures, α-Fe coated graphite, Fe3P and ε-Fe2O3 were also formed to appear.
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