There are three basic options for achieving cryogenic temperatures in space: radiative cooling, cryogen cooling, and mechanical coolers. Both the radiative and cryogen options can fail to meet the highly-demanding requirements for future space missions in terms of temperature, long life and low mass. The mechanical coolers that ESA is currently developing can overcome several of these major problems, thereby providing much greater flexibility in overall spacecraft configuration compared with current cryogenic cooling designs.
The European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) is preparing for the construction of a new high energy colliding accelerator, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). High field superconducting dipole magnets with a nominal magnetic field of 10T will be inevitably required to realize the LHC project. This paper reviews the project and progress of development of the 10T dipole magnets for the LHC project.
Temperature is one of the most important parameters for the study of various properties of materials at cryogenic temperatures. In this lecture, the basic knowledge and techniques are described and reviewed, which are necessary for accurate thermometry.